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SI unit for speed/velocity

m/s (meters per second)

SI unit for acceleration

m/s² (meters per second squared)

Graph: distance vs. time (slope)

slope = velocity

Graph: speed vs. time (slope)

slope = acceleration

Net force

the combination of all forces acting on an object

When is friction greatest?

When surfaces or rough, but overall shapes are flat.

Positive accelerations

Speed is increasing

Negative accelerations

Speed is decreasing

Acceleration is zero

The object is not moving

Positive velocity

Position is increasing (object moving forward)

Negative velocity

Position is decreasing (object moving backward)

Velocity is zero

Object is not moving.


Speed and direction

When changing direction

This is a change in velocity, so acceleration applies!

Static friction

friction between objects that are stationary

Kinetic friction

friction between moving surfaces

Rolling friction

the friction force that acts on rolling objects


the force that opposes motion between two surfaces that are touching

example of kinetic friction

the friction between your car windshield and the air as you drive down the road

the fundamental forces

gravity, electromagnetic force, weak nuclear force, strong nuclear force (aka gravity, charges, nuclear)

On a speed vs. time graph, constant acceleration is represented by...

A straight line

On a distance vs. time graph, constant velocity is represented by

A straight line

Distance vs. time graph with a constant velocity of 10cm/s

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