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independent or manipulated variable-

changed on purpose usually at regular intervals; usually found in the first column (or first row) of a data table; placed on the x-axis of a graph

dependent or responding variable-

affected by the independent variable; placed on the y-axis of a graph


obtained by measuring or counting


describes, but not obtained by measuring or counting

pie graph-

AKA circle graph; shows how a whole is divided into parts (percentages)

bar graph-

used when one factor is qualitative and the other is quantitative

line graph-

used when both variables are quantitative; the most common type of scientific graph


difference between the highest value and the lowest value in a data set


the numeric value for each interval (square) on an axis


series of cells going up and down in a data table


series of cells going across in a data table


going up and down


going across (left to right); parallel to the horizon


horizontal axis; used for the independent variable


vertical axis; used for the dependent variable


used to display the data; 3 types - pie, bar, and line

data table-

used to collect (store) data; made up of rows and columns

method for calculating scale-

1. divide range by squares 2. if necessary, bump up to the next HIGHER number that is easy to work with


describes the relationship between two variables; can be positive or negative


follows the format "Effect of Independent Variable on Dependent Variable"; data table and corresponding graph should always match


indicates name of variable; includes units in parentheses

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