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Asian Art History: Final exam SIGNIFICANCE

Terms in this set (37)

triptych-painting in 3 parts-don't know if they were originally made to be seen together

REPRESENTS A HARMONY BETWEEN ALL THE REALMS-the deities above and the animal kingdom below

GIBBONS
-only one to look at us and engage us
-bare essentials with tree branch and 2 monkeys
-branch moves us diagonally
-treatment is different: spontaneous treatement of ink with texture of smudges to get the look of fur, face is unpainted, lighter ink for tree, darker for monkey, tree is more defined then monkey
-details are in the emotion and composition but don't get a lot of information from it
meaning: idea that the mind jumps from idea to idea like a monkey jumps from tree to tree
-^MONKEY MIND is not a good thing because you want it to be calm and focus on the present
-the image is still- the monkey mind is calmed here
-emotive depiction of mother and child embracing-relation to a HUMAN CONNECTION
-working on different levels at the same time

white robed guanyin
-most traditional
-reliant on line-line is soft, less saturated and curved-no sharp edges or dark tones
-feeling that the landscape extends-suggestion of a larger landscape because of unpainted areas
-soft flowy drapery with flowy brushwork
-depicts guanyin sitting and contemplating on a rock
-light figure, dark background
-style is so different, why we think it may have been made separately from the other 2

crane
-in bamboo forest emerging from the mist
-spots of color on head and in mouth
-different treatment with spots of color
-delineating the feathers-no outline, using the brush to suggest texture
composition: the crane is in motion moving towards the center of the triptych, back foot is up and mouth is open
-crane-symbol for longevity and immortality
-open mouth=sounds like human cries
-animals acting in human ways

relation to humans
-gibbons-emotive depiction of mother and child embracing-relation to a human connection
-crane-open mouth=sounds like human cries

all together different treatments
not apparition painting
he is inventive in his use of ink, he was more popular in japan than china because literati didn't like his brushwork, he is not trying to be academic he is trying to be a chan style painter
artist:
-pinnacle of ZEN BUDDHIST PAINTING
-born into samurai elite class, during 10 yr war he didn't have to fight and became a monk and WENT TO CHINA TO STUDY CHAN ART WHEN EXILES AND BROUGHT BACK PLASHED INK TO JAPAN AND CLASSICAL LANDSCAPE
-introduced splash ink to japan

4 seasons:
-PRIMARY SUBJECT MATTER FOR JAPANESE WORKS-not religious, intrinsically japanese
-STYLE/BRUSHWORK AND DETAILS FROM CHINA
-trees are specifically chinese
-THEME AND SUBJECT MATTER of cycle of the seasons=japanese
-uses MIST to move us further and further back
-mountains created by using an outline and ink wash-different than chan painters

possible that it was painted in china: clues
-SIGNATURE hidden in landscape: "JAPANESE, ZEN PERSON, TOYO"
-a descriptive title, labels him as a foreigner-he wouldn't need to say this if he was in japan since he's japanese
-red stamp: title specific to mind dynasty in china

marriage of CHINESE BRUSHWORK AND JAPANESE SUBJECT MATTER

HANGING SCROLL-very detailed, look at in a personal way-can't fit a lot of people around it, for close personal engagement

brushwork: the golden age of song landscape painting
-particular language of painting
-development from the calligraphic line
-system of brushstrokes and space
-depth is presented in a vertical plane with distance at top

summer:
-VERTICALITY emphasized by figure walking up a pathway up a mountain, movement, path helps the eye zig-zag up the picture back into the painting
-at the very top we see a PAGODA AND KONDO-a monument of a buddhist temple- a HINT AT RELIGION-religious retreats would be in secluded mountainous locations
PROFESSIONAL PAINTER (style developed from northern school during the tang dynasty)-developed during song and ming dynasties
MONUMENTAL STYLE LANDSCAPE PAINTING

chinese landscape painting: not recreating but instead capturing the sense of the nature-the mysterious perfection and beauty of nature
-empty spaces suggest that nature is the perfect creator
-invitation to wander through this expanse and discover fresh beauty

EMPHASIS ON SELF CULTIVATION THROUGH PERSONAL EXPERIENCE OF THINGS
-reflection of NEO-CONFUCIAN search for self truth and self cultivation
tying into neo-confucianism with dualities and complimentary opposites
-big mountain and little man
-LI AND QI-to help him depict the underlying feeling of each element instead of just painting through the human eye
li=invisible inherent property of things, inherent order
qi=the energy of something that occupies space
-we see his response to nature

TENDENCY TO READ CHARACTER INTO PAINTING
-bold directness=open character and generous disposition
-huge mountain shows his AWE OF NATURE and presenting it as grand and everlasting

influenced by li chang-everyone is studying nature based on his work-fan kuan thinks he should adapt this to his own interpretation of the world
-capture and inherent order that people seek in natural scenery
-cosmic view of man's harmonious existence with nature

-narrow range of strokes with a traditional composition
-composition has "heroic simplicity"-a complete view of the world, man and mountains
-crisp brushwork where the figures are
-mountain is 2/3 of the entire scroll
-emphasized verticality with the waterfalls
-represents geological traits from where he lived
-makes them through thick and thin contours
-texture strokes to fill in the shape of the mountain, with sharp trees
-mist to divide viewpoints

-impt to see the whole thing, NOT 1 POINT PERSPECTIVE-WHOLE THING
-sense of monumentality shows importance
-figures dwarfed by nature
PROFESSIONAL PAINTER (style developed from northern school during the tang dynasty)-developed during song and ming dynasties
MONUMENTAL STYLE LANDSCAPE PAINTING

distinguishing btw resemblance and truth
-resemblance gets the form
-truth captures the inner reality
-a landscape must do both-balancing of realism and ideal truth

wants to make the viewer feel like they are in the place depicted
-LITERATI likes this because they are tied to the court so they can undertake an IMAGINARY JOURNEYS through these paintings
-reflection of neo-confucian search for self truth and self cultivation

style and brushwork
-uses jagged silhouettes and ink washes in varying tones to create modeling
-illusions of space and distance with mist to create depth
-uses increasingly lighter INK WASHES to get distance-feeling of vast vistas
-outlines and texture strokes and washes all overlapping
wet on wet ink technique
-uses blue ink washes to go over the outlines to make it blurrier to get a feeling of a landscape

SERVED THE IDEOLOGY OF THE COURT
-composition of the peaks reflect the hierarchical order of the court, main peak=emperor, smaller peaks=ministers
-orderly society and court represented
-composition is a stand in for the order of the court

SEASONAL ASPECT
-early spring, everything about to bloom, reflects the court because early spring represents all that the emperor can and will achieve
-example of marriage of form and content

1ST SIGNED AND DATED WORK
-blending into the landscape
-title written on the painting-a guide to read the painting
-thought it was commissioned by the emperor
-we know to read it as a symbol of hope and a promise by having it be early spring that's depicted
landscape in HANDSCROLL FORM-have a JOURNEY
-close personal interaction, control of experience
-range of vistas, viewpoints and of close ups and far aways
-landscape he knows well

-1st thing u see is a swelling peak form from a high angle-to anchor the scroll, at the end: an open landscape then come to a final robust form mirroring the one in the beginning-OPENS AND CLOSES WITH A ROBUST FORMS

brushwork:
-long texture strikes to create round forms
-alum head strokes to make boulders (type of boulder and type of stroke)-this is an old type of stroke, also using hemp fiber strokes too
-looking back to the 10th C. -organized and right with combining these strokes
-background is a deep view with outline and wash
-trees are more defined-western style paint technique with variation in tone
-academic- firm brushes with a lot of planning but he built it up over time
-diluted ink to start (wet) then added darker washes and dry paint later (dry)

angles are different, NOT 1 CONSISTENT VIEWING POINT
-water in the middle is like mist to change viewing points
-arms lengths creates the division btw viewpoints, so we aren't looking at more than one at a time, so no awkward transitions
-ALL ABOUT THE FLOW OF TRAVELING SO WE CAN SEE WHAT HE SEES

mountains appear more like hills because we are above it so not as imposing as something like travelers among mountains and streams with 2/3 being mountains

OWNER LOVED THE SCROLL so much it went everywhere with him and he wanted to take it to the afterlife with him but as he began to burn it on his deathbed his nephew switched it with another-this is why it's in 2 pieces now

PANORAMIC LANDSCAPE-gentile landscape with empty space

inscribes the scroll with : it wasn't consciously constructed in a spontaneous state, exhilarated
INSCRIPTION TELLS US THAT MOST WAS PAINTED IN 1 SITTING, THEN HE SLOWLY ADDS TO IT OVER THE NEXT 3 YEARS-FOR LEISURE AND SELF CULTIVATION AND EXPRESSION
-constantly changing contors and shape
-additive process is uncommon at this time
-literally revealing the temperament of the artist

ALL ABOUT EXPRESSION OF THE SELF-he worked on it until he felt he was finished

ONE OF THE MOST FAMOUS CHINESE LANDSCAPE PAINTINGS- judged to have a sense of li (inherent order)

LITERATI PAINTER
LITERATI PAINTING DEVELOPED IN YUAN + ming DYNASTY
-developed from southern school in tang dynasty
LITERATI GARDENS
-rejuvenating the self without having to leave the city to join with nature
-a way to escape the city to nature
-patron could have garden reflect on their values through the design
-go through a separate gate, setting off the natural sight
-small in size

LARGEST LITERATI GARDEN
-title comes from a poetic illusion-owners expectations for retirement-patron retires from an unhappy political career and includes all the standard forms of gardens

WIDER WORLD IN MINIATURE
-all different forms coming together in the garden

SPECIFIC PATHS TO MOVE YOU FROM PLACE TO PLACE-BEING LEAD FROM ONE SCENE TO THE NEXT, PLACES TO PAUSE AND CONTEMPLATE THE NATURE AROUND YOU
VIEWING EXPERIENCE IS STRICTLY CONTROLLED
MOVEMENT IS LIKE A HANDSCROLL-never see the whole thing and it's made up of scenes

idea of the garden=GREATER THAN THE SUM OF ITS PARTS

garden has been associated with a famous literati painter (he painted part of the garden) who helped to develop literati painting

garden: ratio 2:1 of water to land

vertical shifts along the way

CHINESE GARDEN THEORY
-holistic creation
-layout=composition
-made up of individual sections meant to be unique but need to coher to a larger theme for the garden

water used to divide space like mist in paintings to create a balanced, harmonic whole
water in the middle serves to create open spaces which is considered a luxury

divided in 3 parts
-a hall for entertaining large groups of guests within the garden (social aspect to garden, not just religious)
-a gazebo
-a pavilion with moondoors to frame viewer experience and focus the eye
-a bridge-scenic but also functional, in the center of a garden scene

building a garden-interest in overall layout and architecture, plants are secondary, meant to be appreciated while moving with spots to be appreciated at certain points
-part of imperial city with limited access
-new capital in beijing, took 1 million workers and 15 years to build
-imperial city is at the center, closer to the center=closer to power

POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS CENTER
-based on 11th C. manual for design of buildings to reflect social hierarchy

FENGSHUI
-ideal to follow the cosmic order-balancing natural and built environment
-PRECISE DESIGN REFLECTS THE ORDER THE EMPEROR IS MEANT TO BESTOW
-RED AND YELLOW=imperial colors
-red=fire, happiness, wealth, honor
-yellow=earth, central direction, associated with leadership in the court

SYMMETRICAL LAYOUT ON MERIDIAN LINE-all important buildings on the axis, center and proximity to power
-symmetry=political order
LAYOUT REFLECTS THE HEAVENS, EARTH AND LAND

EMPEROR=representative on earth of universal supreme power
-good ruler=crops are plentiful and it will rain at good times
-bad ruler=natural disaster and famine
-connects the divine and earthly realms

COMBINATION OF TERRESTRIAL AND HEAVENLY
-heaven=circular= base of buildings
-earth=square=roofs

ALL IMPT BUILDINGS FACE SOUTH
-south is a source of auspiciousness and has influences in fengshui

ALL ABOUT ACHIEVING BALANCE IN EVERYTHING-reflected in the order of the city and the people
message: UNIVERSE IS IN BALANCE AND BEIJING IS IN THE CENTER OF EVERYTHING
MAPPING COSMIC NUMEROLOGY ONTO EARTH-about importance of specific numbers

cosmic harmony and imperial power

4 series of gates-moving towards political and sacred-buildings getting taller
-gates for protection and symbolic demarcation of space

ACCESS TO IMPERIAL CITY IS RESTRICTED TO IMPERIAL FAMILY, THE COURT AND INVITED GUESTS

heavenly peace gate=1st gate and point of contact btw emperor and people

moat=defense against fires, protective, and water enhances the beneficial effects of fengshui

dragon pavement-covered in imperial dragons-central stairway reserved for emperor- tons of stone from 10 miles away-shows command of resources

inner court-residential area, mirrors layout of the front court
-raised up and on central axis
river front garden city-importance of water and luxury of garden

GATEHOUSE
-monumental gate with chatris on top (symbol for kingship)-indin element
-liminal space preparing us to enter a space different than everyday life
-sandstone base with white marble design and inlay element-patterns of PIETRE DURE-inlay semi precious stone into other semi precious stone imported from western europe, luxury-cost, and no local artists know how to do this-FOREIGN ARTISTS
-preview of luxury to come
-indian and persian elements
GATE-MORE INDIAN
TAJ MAHAL-MORE PERSIAN

CHAHAR BAGH: GARDEN OF 4 PARADISES
-btw gate and taj mahal
-CONTROL OVER NATURAL RESOURCES
-GARDEN SPACE IN DESERT CLIMATE
-series of waterways and fountains

TAJ MAHAL=PRIMARILY MARBLE=LUXURY IMPORTED MATERIAL
-set btw 2 sandstone buildings to frame taj mahal and give symmetry to the area
-large platform-power
-minarets anchor platform (message of power)
MUGHAL ARCHITECTURE EMPHASIS ON BALANCE AND HARMONY
-tall dome-on top-upturned lotus flower and crescent moon-COMING TOGETHER OF INDIAN AND ISLAMIC TRADITIONS
-lotus-delicate decorative aesthetic- divorced from its meaning
-crescent moon and star= symbol for islam

HASHT-BIHISHT PLAN-8 halls and side rooms-same as humayun's tomb

CENOTAPH-him and his wife buried underneath
cenotaph marks space btw dome and body

*-treatment of cenotaph is similar to the treatment of the taj majal-raised up and surrounded by octagon of screens, inlaid stones for decoration, impt of cost of material and time of labor

taj mahal looks like it's floating from far away-slight variations within the marble to make it more visually interesting and creates depth
-ILLUSION OF INLAID BLACK ONYX STONE

COMPLETELY COVERED IN DECORATIVE ELEMENTS: PIETRE DURE AND LOW RELIEF SCULPTURE-emphasis on symmetrical floral elements

patterns are islamic/mughal
-ties into THEME OF PARADISE
-calligraphic decoration with inlaid black onyx-verses of Quran focusing on paradise

LUXURY MATERIALS BRINGING PRESTIGE TO RULERS

MONUMENT TO LOVE-built for his wife
SIGNIFICANT BECAUSE HE WANTED TO BE BURIED THERE
-theory: symbolizes his divine role in the seat of god-based on inscriptions of buildings-he had a love for thrones
-another theory: it would be a mansion in paradise
-maybe vanity project

EXAMPLE OF MUGHAL ARCHITECTURE WHERE YOU SEE THE COLLISION OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF ARCHITECTURE: INDIAN, ISLAMIC/PERSIAN, AND WESTERN ELEMENTS (semi precious stone)
-good example of this is the top piece on the dome
ALLEGORICAL SCENE
SINGLE NAMED ARTIST
SINGLE ALBUM LEAF-later put into larger collection
HIERARCHY-with scale and line of figures
-jahangir is most impt by position and size
-he is framed with flames of radiance surrounded by gold disk and crescent moon around the border of the disk-image of the sun and moon=day and light, symbol for his rulership-he controls time
-crescent moon and star=symbol of islam
-also acts as a halo-divine light
-ontop a jewel studden platform and elevated
-all showing his importance

ONLY ENGAGING WITH THE SUFI- a religious figure
-handing the sufi a book-a luxury object with decorated cover-highly valued object-GIVING HIM A GIFT
-accepting the gesture with a cloak bcaus cant touch an imperial person-A GESTURE ACKNOWLEDGING FOREIGN CUSTOMS
-sufi given secondary importance by size
-STATEMENT IN THE SUBJECT MATTER THAT JAHANGIR PREFERS RELIGIOUS MATTERS TO WORLDLY ONES-also seen in the descriptions at the top

2nd man in line: OTTOMAN SULTANT-in nice clothing, turban distinguishing him as a foreigner-faces throne, hands in a gesture of respect-ADOPTING FOREIGN RESPECTFUL GESTURE

3rd man in line: KING JAMES THE 1ST OF ENGLAND-elaborate jewelry + fancy sword-depiction based on portrait given to jahangir by someone in the english court-normally depicted with hand on hilt, but too threatening so artist alters it.

4th figure in line: THE ARTIST-profile, looking towards throne, holding painting showing the imperial approval of his artwork, simple yellow robe-HUNDU ARTIST
-holding picture of man in the same yellow robe, bowing towards the emperor-shows his profession, skill, his respect
-HUMBLE gesture of SINGING THE IMAGE UNDER THE EMPEROR
-artist is known for portraits

stool on elaborate hourglass with 2 crouching angles-ILLUSION OF PASSAGE OF TIME, complicated more by the other angels, maybe upset because time is running out for the emperor-IDEA THAT TIME IS FLEETING BUT FAITH IS CONSTANT is 1 possible reading

SYNTHESIS OF INDIAN, PERSIAN AND EUROPEAN MODELS
-figures with more modeling and shading and naturalistic detail in specificity for floral decoration thats not as symmetrical=western influence
-bring colors and flat patterns-mughal
-emphasis on careful detail and brings it all together
BYOBU SCREEN-folding screens
-interact with them in 3d way even though they are flat, made in pairs, used to separate spaces because traditional japanese architecture had big open spaces and liked idea of flexible architecture, wooden so easy to move, could be changed for season or occasion, provided privacy and protected from drafts from the buildings being made of wood, functional and decorative

KANO SCHOOL
-professional painting school, long lasting and influential, broad range of themes and styles, capitalize on what the elite patrons want

KANO EITOKU
-large compositions with strength and dynamism appealing to war lords
-well suited for the castles with large open spaces in momoyama period
-figures, animals and nature scenes on gold foil

Cypress
-GOLD LEAF AND OVERSIZED OBJECTS APPEALED TO THE SAMURAI CLASS BECAUSE THEY EXUDE THE POWER AND ENERGY THAT THEY WANT TO BE ASSOCIATED WITH
-one of kano eitoku's last works
-typical of a BLUE AND GOLD WORK
-daimyo and samurai class preferred it
-SIMPLE COMPOSITION with heavy black outlines and gold background and a few objects
-NOT IN A PAIR like most byobu screens
-no sense of where the tree begins or ends, no foreground
-TREE DOMINATES THE COMPOSITION-powerful and monumental
-large scale tree with not a lot of shading, depth and definition made through line except for the highlight for modeling to make it three dimensional-give it a sculptural form and texture of tree bark
-outlines used to create thickness + spacing + 3D of the tree
-element of variety with cluster of lichen
-CURVING, DYNAMIC LINES OF TREE GIVE THE COMPOSITION A DYNAMIC FEELING
-expanding the space because it is so big and cut off
-GOLD LEAF-emphasizes decorative aesthetic and shows wealth and highlights of the tree, also gold leaf background helps us focus (on the boldly rendered tree) and create a sense of timelessness
-limited colors
-simplifying it and giving it a PRESENCE AND LIFE FORCE

CYPRESS=SYMBOL FOR LONGEVITY

-left: branch mirrors water underneath
-water broken by 2 rocks or maybe mountains breaking through golden cloud

IN AN INTERIOR SPACE WITH LIMITED LIGHT THE GOLD LEAD WOULD REFLECT AND AMPLIFY THE LIGHT IN THE ROOM

-not a naturalistic depiction
-most objects draw attention to interacting planes and the energy and dynamism created by those planes

THIS AESTHETIC WAS VERY POPULAR IN MOMOYAMA PERIOD
BYOBU SCREEN-folding screens
-interact with them in 3d way even though they are flat, made in pairs, used to separate spaces because traditional japanese architecture had big open spaces and liked idea of flexible architecture, wooden so easy to move, could be changed for season or occasion, provided privacy and protected from drafts from the buildings being made of wood, functional and decorative

gold and bright colors: greens and blues
MINERAL PIGMENTS: bright, intense, retain color over time, highlighted with gold

WAVES-lines of ink and gold-the ungulate and fold in on each other in a pattern and shape-FLATTENING OF COMPLICATED PATTERN-not naturalistic
-the flow and rhythmic variety they create is what's impt

gold leaf originally outlined with what was silver-now black-a lot lighter looking when silver

characteristic of RIMPA: is the wet on wet blending technique
-rimpa works are clear, simple and bright
-depicting themes from japanese literature-references to nature and seasons
-not a continues or organized school
UNPREDICTABILITY AND COAGULATION CHANGING SATURATION AND HUE of wet on wet technique in order to create the pattern

EMPHASIS ON PATTERNING THAT FLATTENS OUT PAINTING

scene: crabby rocks, maybe mountains because they have trees, gold is eyelids or clouds, CHANGING PERSPECTIVE, no real details, make it hard to tell what it is

TITLE tells its ONE OF JAPAN'S 3 MOST BEAUTIFUL VIEWS-VIEW OF A FAMOUS PLACE-subject matter of yamato-e
or it could be related to literary predecessors-tied to yamato-e with intellectual theme
or maybe its not matsushima, matsu=pines, shima=islands, maybe just painting of pines and islands not a specific space

DON'T KNOW IF IT'S A SPECIFIC PLACE OR NOT
confusing because screens are paired but we see 2 different viewpoints-frontal on the right and looking down on the left-yet large clouds carry us through both-disorienting
-left screen is disorienting-could tie into return to the intellectual approach where you are now missing outside information that could help us understand it

FLATTENING OF PATTERNS AND 2 DIFFERENT VIEWPOINTS MAKE IT DISORIENTING
ocean is a relevant topic at this time-it brings, threatens, and reassures-with images of these waves

western influences
-perspective in depth rather than higher
-viewing point is lower
-shading with blues making it more 3d-idea of shadow and highlight
-prussian blue- a lot!-most expensive color
-these are the parts that make it new and different
-potential movement from left to right

japanese elements
-clouds are flatter
-mt. fuji
-japanese fishermen type boats
-text: title and name of the series
-materials and type of print
-subject matter
-connects to ukiyo-e-idea of floating and ephemerality (short amt. of time) and tying it into a larger print culture-same mood as ukiyo-e + famous places depicted

perspective
-we are in the water about to get hit by the wave
-low vantage point to place us in the scene-sense of danger
-view of mt. fuji far off-when wave crashes we won't have the view anymore-mt. fuji =represents our homes and what is dependable
-dramatic moment

emotion
-not conveyed through the faces of people
-creates anxiety through position
-mood: we are going to die
-also calm and beautiful
-we don't have emotion and anxiety that we see when we visually analyze it-readable either way
-stylized claw like waves coming down to grab you
-physical and metaphorical anxiety

SOCIAL AND POLITICAL MEANING:
-presents food and opportunities but also threatening and you are vulnerable because its from the time when the country is blocked off so if you are fishing and get lost you can't go back
-space and drama and tension of wave is socially and politically relevant-looking outward and interested in foreign aspects but also protective
-arrives to west with foreigners but sense of familiarity but the social and political meaning gets lost

popular in its time and now:
in its time it was set apart from other art works
-the medium, it is replicable as a print
-the image could be circulated among a larger audience-don't need knowledge to understand it
-its simple enough to be interpreted by other artists
-could be appreciated by both japanese and western people

iconic initially and now because styles are well balanced and its very adaptable

now used in japan to market things to tourists and westerners
use it to represent japan as a place of tranquility

japanese sensibility and modes of looking and materials combined with synthetic foreign material
chinese
-materials
-format
-subject matter: horses
-horizontal hand scroll-individual viewing experience
-adopted chinese texture strikes to create elements of the landscape
-slants up- a chinese way of seeing but the viewpoint does come down a little from typical bird's eye view
-composition

western
-techniques
-atmospheric perspective-less outline in further away object and outlines in front objects
-baroque art in the west focused on modeling with chiaroscuro-he uses this here but not as stark-its more of a transition-bringing in what he learned in europe
-realism

prep drawings:
-show more western style than final
-not as much interest in line
-dramatically foreshortened views
-anatomical attention-guy without shirt in drawing but with court shirt in final
-uses brush not pen to make draft-using chinese materials in the draft which looks more western in style
-working out errors on the draft because can't fix things on silk

-brought them together to make something realistic
-1st to blend artistic techniques and themes with artistic sensibilities
-blending achieves a new synthesis of chinese and western techniques and values

western realism, chinese composition and brushwork is the hallmark of his style

artist works in:
Xionfa style-refers to a perspectival style (perspective applied to roads and buildings) in combination with chinese style painting (began to be used for natural objects too)
-fusion of oils with chinese ink and pigments
goal: realistic painting with a feeling of timelessness with the flat background
shanghai school:
-move from literati painting to new forms with portraiture, responding to the realism of photos, one of the first avant garde movements in china
-photography developing in china-primarily in portraiture-appealing to the middle class
-shanghai school portraiture is responding to photography by adding emotion and internal state-adding what's missing from the photograph technology

hanging scroll:
-traditional form of display-personal viewing experience
-we see this figure from several different viewpoints-enlarged at the bottom
-feet are at eye level because its a hanging scroll-as if he is looking down at you-meeting and challenging our view

ancestor portraits:
-no emotions and formal and formulaic
-trained as a professional painter-this is overtly going against the rules of portraiture he would have learned

similarities with ancestral portraits:
-recognizable and individualized facial features
-frontal position
-stylized robes (but here a different kind of stylized)

ancestral portraiture differences:
-more confrontational with frontality
-stylized robes that hide the body like in ancestral portraits but the lines are jagged
-looks too big for him and falling off
-defined by thick, sharp, calligraphic line
-no shading
-sharp and angular with rectilinear treatment-not realistic
-thickness and type of line gives him an intenseness
-more like armor than clothing

inscription:
-differences from ancestral portraits emphasized by the text-self portrait in words-commenting on depiction of the body itself
-with frustration and confusion of the place of the world
-refers to ancestral portraits directly in text

2 models: western and chinese
-mis-matched style with completely different style for the body and the face than for the robes
-western: face and body carefully modeled by shading to create 3D and a life-like appearance-realism in dialogue with photography
-chinese: stylizeed robes with calligraphic line
-photographic head with more cartoonist style as you go down
-contrasts the 2 models not making them coherent-showing them at odds on his own body
-commenting on a failing tradition
-concerns for inability to combine the 2
artist:
-lived and worked in nyc-identifies as new yorker
-exposed to western literature and chinese traditional art forms (comes from artistic family)
-art works related to chinese culture but not chinese materials-uses non traditional and innovative materials
-firework displays of art
-brief and about the event and the performance aspect of it not the final project

materials: gunpowder + calligraphy look
-going back to the tradition of fireworks to celebrate things in china-taking a celebratory material from the history of china and tying it into and applying it to modern art
-duality created: beautiful and ephemeral but created with gunpowder which is used for very different things
-1st to have to accept its uncontrollable and dangerous then you can learn how to work with it
-treating gunpowder like brush strokes
-using different types and colors of gunpowder-different explosive properties are depending on the type of brushstroke he is trying to create
-when doing the large sketch on cardboard he uses a long stick with a brush on the end-in a sense its like calligraphy
-also like calligraphy with the layers to control the explosion to mimic the type of brushwork he wants
-for mist-uses multiple laters to create what looks like an ink wash, the more smoke the more misty it looks

connection/engagement with community:
-works with groups of local volunteers when making site specific works
-set up bleachers in the warehouse for people to watch the detonation

experience it:
-brief and about the event and the performance aspect of it not the final project
-placing a premium on the creation process-relates to art indicating the temperament of the artist-this is how he thinks about these drawings-he wants you to see the explosiveness of the gunpowder
-like unrolling a scroll, revealed to the viewer and requires the viewer to activate it

process:
-small sketch, then large sketch on cardboard with brush on stick like calligraphy, cuts out cardboard stencil, places it on canvas, puts on gunpowder to create the drawing, removes stencil, paints and defines more with gun powder, repeats with many layers
-outline created by many layers of paper to control the explosion
-mimics brushwork through the control of the explosion-can create a mist effect with multiple layers like an ink wash, the more smoke the more misty looking
-when ready to detonate-last layer on tight with no air under-held on with rocks and bricks

layout:
-references literati painting-replicates the small tradition of literati fans and small art works but now its giant
-chinese distance view with mountains high on the canvas
-using traditions from the west (enlarged lotus flowers) and especially chinese traditions (mountains high on canvas)
-lotus flowers relate to china
-enclosed landscape: like literati gardens its a way to interact within a space when you can't get into nature
-placed old chinese works in the gallery and echoed whats on the walls-idea of being in a literati garden and interacting with old style chinese art works like the literati would
-doors: he thought of them as man made with the rocks around it like how gardens were man made but meant to look natural with mountains seen in the distance-this is the same with his representations of mountains far away
-all about interaction with the artwork, past and present