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35 terms

Photosynthesis, Cellular Respiration, Mitosis

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aerobic
requiring oxygen
anaerobic
without oxygen
anaphase
third phase of mitosis and of meiosis I and II, in which the sister chromatids separate and move toward the poles of the spindle
asexual reproduction
process in which a single cell or set of cells produces offspring that inherit all their genetic material from one parent
ATP
adenosine triphospate; main energy source that cells use for most of their work
autotroph
organism that makes its own food
benign tumor
mass of cells that remain at their original site
Calvin scale
cycle in plants that makes sugar from carbon dioxide, H* ions, and high-energy electrons carried by NADPH
cancer
disease caused by severe disruption of the mechanisms that normally control the cell cycle
cell cycle
sequence of events from the production of a eukaryotic cell to the time the cell itself reproduces
cell plate
disk containing cell wall material that develops in plant cells during cytokinesis, eventually dividing the cell into 2 daughter cells
cellular respiration
chemical process that uses oxygen to convert chemical energy stored in organic molecules into ATP
centromere
region where two sister chromatids are joined tightly together
chlorophyll
pigment that gives a chloroplast its green color; uses light energy to split water molecules during photosynthesis
chloroplast
organelle found in some plant cells and certain unicellular organisms where photosynthesis takes place
consumer
organism that obtains food by eating producers(autotrophs) or other consumers
chromosome
condensed threads of genetic material formed from chromatin as a cell prepares to divide
cytokinesis
process by which the cytoplasm of a cell is divided into two; usually follows mitosis and meiosis
electron transport chain
sequence of electron carrier molecules that transfer electrons and release energy during cellular respiration
fermentation
cellular process of making ATP without oxygen
glycolysis
the splitting in half of a glucose molecule; the first stage of cellular respiration and fermentation
interphase
state of the cell cycle during which a cell carries out its metabolic processes and performs its functions in the body
Krebs cycle
stage of cellular respiration that finishes the breakdown of pyruvic acid molecules to carbon dioxide, releasing energy
light reactions
chemical reactions that convert the sun's energy to chemical energy; takes place in the membranes of thylakoids in the chloroplast
malignant tumor
mass of abnormal cells resulting from uncontrolled cancer cell division
metabolism
all of a cell's chemical processes
metaphase
second stage of mitosis and of meiosis I and II when the spindle is fully formed and all of the chromosomes are held in place
metastasis
spread of cancer cells beyond their original site in the body
mitosis
process by which the nucleus and duplicated chromosomes of a cell divide and are evenly distributed, forming two daughter nuclei
photosynthesis
process by which plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
prophase
first stage of mitosis and of meiosis I and II, when the already replicated chromosomes condense
sexual reproduction
process in which genetic material from two parents combines and produces offspring that differ genetically from either parent
sister chromatid
one of a pair of identical chromosomes created before a cell divides
spindle
framework of microtubules that guide the movement of chromosmes during mitosis and meiosis
telophase
final stage of mitosis and of meiosis I and II, in which the chromosomes reach the spindle poles, nuclear envelopes form around each set of daughter chromosomes, and the nucleoli reappear