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third phase of mitosis and of meiosis I and II, in which the sister chromatids separate and move toward the poles of the spindle
process in which a single cell or set of cells produces offspring that inherit all their genetic material from one parent
cycle in plants that makes sugar from carbon dioxide, H* ions, and high-energy electrons carried by NADPH
sequence of events from the production of a eukaryotic cell to the time the cell itself reproduces
disk containing cell wall material that develops in plant cells during cytokinesis, eventually dividing the cell into 2 daughter cells
chemical process that uses oxygen to convert chemical energy stored in organic molecules into ATP
pigment that gives a chloroplast its green color; uses light energy to split water molecules during photosynthesis
organelle found in some plant cells and certain unicellular organisms where photosynthesis takes place
process by which the cytoplasm of a cell is divided into two; usually follows mitosis and meiosis
electron transport chain
sequence of electron carrier molecules that transfer electrons and release energy during cellular respiration
the splitting in half of a glucose molecule; the first stage of cellular respiration and fermentation
state of the cell cycle during which a cell carries out its metabolic processes and performs its functions in the body
stage of cellular respiration that finishes the breakdown of pyruvic acid molecules to carbon dioxide, releasing energy
chemical reactions that convert the sun's energy to chemical energy; takes place in the membranes of thylakoids in the chloroplast
second stage of mitosis and of meiosis I and II when the spindle is fully formed and all of the chromosomes are held in place
process by which the nucleus and duplicated chromosomes of a cell divide and are evenly distributed, forming two daughter nuclei
process by which plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
first stage of mitosis and of meiosis I and II, when the already replicated chromosomes condense
process in which genetic material from two parents combines and produces offspring that differ genetically from either parent
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