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requiring oxygen


without oxygen


third phase of mitosis and of meiosis I and II, in which the sister chromatids separate and move toward the poles of the spindle

asexual reproduction

process in which a single cell or set of cells produces offspring that inherit all their genetic material from one parent


adenosine triphospate; main energy source that cells use for most of their work


organism that makes its own food

benign tumor

mass of cells that remain at their original site

Calvin scale

cycle in plants that makes sugar from carbon dioxide, H* ions, and high-energy electrons carried by NADPH


disease caused by severe disruption of the mechanisms that normally control the cell cycle

cell cycle

sequence of events from the production of a eukaryotic cell to the time the cell itself reproduces

cell plate

disk containing cell wall material that develops in plant cells during cytokinesis, eventually dividing the cell into 2 daughter cells

cellular respiration

chemical process that uses oxygen to convert chemical energy stored in organic molecules into ATP


region where two sister chromatids are joined tightly together


pigment that gives a chloroplast its green color; uses light energy to split water molecules during photosynthesis


organelle found in some plant cells and certain unicellular organisms where photosynthesis takes place


organism that obtains food by eating producers(autotrophs) or other consumers


condensed threads of genetic material formed from chromatin as a cell prepares to divide


process by which the cytoplasm of a cell is divided into two; usually follows mitosis and meiosis

electron transport chain

sequence of electron carrier molecules that transfer electrons and release energy during cellular respiration


cellular process of making ATP without oxygen


the splitting in half of a glucose molecule; the first stage of cellular respiration and fermentation


state of the cell cycle during which a cell carries out its metabolic processes and performs its functions in the body

Krebs cycle

stage of cellular respiration that finishes the breakdown of pyruvic acid molecules to carbon dioxide, releasing energy

light reactions

chemical reactions that convert the sun's energy to chemical energy; takes place in the membranes of thylakoids in the chloroplast

malignant tumor

mass of abnormal cells resulting from uncontrolled cancer cell division


all of a cell's chemical processes


second stage of mitosis and of meiosis I and II when the spindle is fully formed and all of the chromosomes are held in place


spread of cancer cells beyond their original site in the body


process by which the nucleus and duplicated chromosomes of a cell divide and are evenly distributed, forming two daughter nuclei


process by which plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars


first stage of mitosis and of meiosis I and II, when the already replicated chromosomes condense

sexual reproduction

process in which genetic material from two parents combines and produces offspring that differ genetically from either parent

sister chromatid

one of a pair of identical chromosomes created before a cell divides


framework of microtubules that guide the movement of chromosmes during mitosis and meiosis


final stage of mitosis and of meiosis I and II, in which the chromosomes reach the spindle poles, nuclear envelopes form around each set of daughter chromosomes, and the nucleoli reappear

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