A simple sugar. Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides are made up of monosaccharides.
A carbohydrate consisting of 2 to approximately 20 monosaccharides
Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides
What configuration are most sugars in?
Aldoses contain what functional group
Ketoses contain what functional group
Aldoses with 3C or more and Ketoses with 4C or more are what
An important Aldose for metabolism
An important Ketose for metabolism
How are Cyclic Monsaccharides formed
When an -OH group attacks the carbonyl carbon only 5- member (furanose) and 6-member (pryanose)
Two forms of cyclic monosaccharides
Alpha (OH down) and Beta(OH up).
Result from reduction of sugars
Constituents of DNA
Phosphate esters like ATP
Have an amino in the place of the hydroxyl
Acetals, ketals and Glycosides
Basis for Polysaccharides
Alpha glycosidic bond
Beta glycosidic bond
Glucose Glucose with a Beta glycosidic bond. Humans cannot digest. We do not make the enzyme.
Triacyglycerol have what on their heads
Storage mechanism of fatty acids
Triacyglycerol Stored in adipose tissue.
Contain a sphingosine (an 18 carbon amino alcohol with an unsaturated hydrocarbon chain), linked to one fatty acyl group and usually linked to a phosphate plus a chlorine (sphingomyelin), a sugar (ceramindes) or to a complex oligosaccharide (gangliosides). Sphingolipids are absent from most prokaryotes and occur primarily in the outer face of the plasma membrane in eukaryotes.
Backbone is sphingosine (outer leaflet); Role is in cell recognition - Cerebrosides: Muscle and nerve cell membranes; gangliosides: nerve cell membranes; Antigenic determinant of ABO blood
A glycosphingolipid that contains one monosaccharide residue attached via a Beta-glycosidic linkage to C1 of a ceramide. Are abundant in nerve tissue and are found in myelin sheaths.
Are similar to cerebrosides, but containt two or more monosaccharides, are important in neurons, act as receptor for hormones and viruses, can accumulate and cause genetic diseases
A large, ring shaped lipid found in cell membranes. Cholesterol is the precursor for steroid hormones, and is used to manufacture bile salts.
one amino group, one carboxyl group, a proton and a side chain
Chirality of Amino Acids
Proline (pro, P)
More polar Aromatic
More polar Aromatic
Arginine (arg, R)
What are Nucleotides
Building blocks of DNA and RNA
3 components of nucleotides
Nitrogenous Base, 5 carbon sugar and phosphate group
Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, Thymine, and Uracil
What Bond Links the Nitrogenous Base and Sugar
A building block of DNA, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
the combination of a purine or pyrimidine plus a pentose sugar; it does not contain a phosphate group