61 terms

Block 1 Cell Biochem 5

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3 Carbohydrate classifications
Monosaccharides
Oligosaccharides
Polysaccharides
Monosaccharides
A simple sugar. Oligosaccharides and polysaccharides are made up of monosaccharides.
Oligosaccharides
A carbohydrate consisting of 2 to approximately 20 monosaccharides
Polysaccharides
Carbohydrates that are made up of more than two monosaccharides
What configuration are most sugars in?
D configuration
Aldoses contain what functional group
Aldehyde
Ketoses contain what functional group
Ketone
Aldoses with 3C or more and Ketoses with 4C or more are what
Chiral
An important Aldose for metabolism
D-glyceraldehyde
An important Ketose for metabolism
Dihydroxyacetone
How are Cyclic Monsaccharides formed
When an -OH group attacks the carbonyl carbon only 5- member (furanose) and 6-member (pryanose)
Two forms of cyclic monosaccharides
Alpha (OH down) and Beta(OH up).
Sugar Alcohols
Result from reduction of sugars
Deoxy sugars
Constituents of DNA
Sugar Esters
Phosphate esters like ATP
Amino Sugars
Have an amino in the place of the hydroxyl
Acetals, ketals and Glycosides
Basis for Polysaccharides
Sugar Bonds
Glycosidic
Alpha glycosidic bond
Beta glycosidic bond
Lactose
Cellobios
Glucose Glucose with a Beta glycosidic bond. Humans cannot digest. We do not make the enzyme.
Triacyglycerol have what on their heads
Ester linkages
Storage mechanism of fatty acids
Triacyglycerol Stored in adipose tissue.
Glycerophospholipid
Sphingolipids
Contain a sphingosine (an 18 carbon amino alcohol with an unsaturated hydrocarbon chain), linked to one fatty acyl group and usually linked to a phosphate plus a chlorine (sphingomyelin), a sugar (ceramindes) or to a complex oligosaccharide (gangliosides). Sphingolipids are absent from most prokaryotes and occur primarily in the outer face of the plasma membrane in eukaryotes.
Glycolipids
Backbone is sphingosine (outer leaflet); Role is in cell recognition - Cerebrosides: Muscle and nerve cell membranes; gangliosides: nerve cell membranes; Antigenic determinant of ABO blood
Cerebroside
A glycosphingolipid that contains one monosaccharide residue attached via a Beta-glycosidic linkage to C1 of a ceramide. Are abundant in nerve tissue and are found in myelin sheaths.
Ganglioside
Are similar to cerebrosides, but containt two or more monosaccharides, are important in neurons, act as receptor for hormones and viruses, can accumulate and cause genetic diseases
Cholesterol
A large, ring shaped lipid found in cell membranes. Cholesterol is the precursor for steroid hormones, and is used to manufacture bile salts.
Amino Acid
one amino group, one carboxyl group, a proton and a side chain
Chirality of Amino Acids
L
Glycine (gly,G)
Nonpolar, Aliphatic
Alanine (ala,A)
Nonpolar, Aliphatic
Proline (pro, P)
Nonpolar Cyclic
Valine (val,V)
Nonpolar Branched-chain
Leucine (leu,L)
Nonpolar Branched-chain
Isoleucine (lle,L)
Nonpolar Branched-chain
Phenylalanine (phe,F)
Nonpolar Aromatic
Tyrosine (tyr,Y)
More polar Aromatic
Tryptophan (trp,W)
More polar Aromatic
Methionine (met,M)
Sulfur-Containing
Cysteine (cys,C)
Sulfur-Containing
Asparagine (asn,N)
Polar, Uncharged
Glutamine (gln,Q)
Polar, Uncharged
Serine (ser,S)
Polar, Uncharged
Threonine (thr,T)
Polar, Uncharged
Aspartate (asp,D)
Negative Acidic
Glutamate (glu,E)
Negative Acidic
Arginine (arg, R)
Positive Basic
Lysine (lys,K)
Positive Basic
Histidine (his,H)
Positive Basic
What are Nucleotides
Building blocks of DNA and RNA
3 components of nucleotides
Nitrogenous Base, 5 carbon sugar and phosphate group
Pyrimidine
Purine
Nitrogenous Bases
Adenine, Cytosine, Guanine, Thymine, and Uracil
What Bond Links the Nitrogenous Base and Sugar
Glycosidic
Ribose
Deoxyribose
Nucleotide
A building block of DNA, consisting of a five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and a phosphate group.
Nucleocide
the combination of a purine or pyrimidine plus a pentose sugar; it does not contain a phosphate group

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