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64 terms

Mader, Biology Eleventh Edition Chapter 4

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Actin Filament
component of cytoskeleton; plays a role in the movement of the cell and its organelles; a protein filament in a sarcomere of a muscle, its movement shortens the sarcomere yielding contraction
archaean
member of the prokaryotic domain archaea
bacillus
aerobic rod-shaped spore-producing bacterium
basal body
cytoplasmic structure that is located at the base of and may organize cilia or flagella
capsule
A sticky layer that surrounds the cell walls of some bacteria, protecting the cell surface and sometimes helping to glue the cell to surfaces.
cell
smallest unit of life that displays all the properties of life; composed of cytoplasm surrounded by a membrane
cell envelope
in a prokaryotic cell, the portion composed of the plasma membrane, the cell wall and the gycocalyx
cell theory
idea that all living things are composed of cells, cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and new cells are produced from existing cells
cell wall
cellular structure that surrounds a plant, protistan, fungal or bacterial cell and maintains the cells shape and rigidity
central vacuole
in a plant cell a large fluid filled sac that stores metabolites. During growth it enlarges forcing primary cell wall to expand and the cell surface area to volume ratio to increase
centriole
in animal cells, a cytoplasmic organelle that organizes the mitotic spindle fibers during cell reproductions
centrosome
Central microtubule organizing center of cells. In animal cells, it contains two centrioles.
chloroplast
Membrane-bounded organelle in algae and plants with chlorophyll-containing membranous thylakoids; where photosynthesis takes place
chromosome
threadlike structure within the nucleus containing the genetic information that is passed from one generation of cells to the next... composed of condensed chromatin
cilium
short hairlike projection similar to a flagellum; produces movement in many cells
coccus
any spherical or nearly spherical bacteria
conjugation pili
in a bacterium, elongated, hollow appendage used to transfer DNA to other cells
cristae
Short, fingerlike projections formed by the folding of the inner membrane of mitochondria.
cyanobacteria
Photosynthetic bacterium that contains chlorophyll and releases oxygen; formerly called a blue-green alga
cytoplasm
the entire region of the cell between the nucleus and the plasma membrane
cytoskeleton
Internal framework of the cell, consisting of microtubules, actin filaments, and intermediate filaments.
endomembrane system
cellular system that consists of the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, and vesicles
endoplasmic reticulum
system of membranous saccules and channels in the cytoplasm, often with attached ribosomes
endosymbiotic theory
explanation of the evolution of eukaryotic organelles by phagocytosis of prokaryotes
eukaryotic cell
A type of cell with a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles. Excludes bacteria
fimbriae
small, bristlelike fiber on the surface of a bacterial cell, which attaches bacteria to a surface; also fingerlike extension from the oviduct near the ovary
flagellum
a lash-like appendage used for locomotion (e.g., in sperm cells and some bacteria and protozoa)
gene
Unit of heredity existing as alleles are inherited- usually one from each parent
glycocalyx
Gel like coating on the outside of a bacterium. If compact it is called a capsule, if diffuse it is called a slime layer
gogli apparatus
organelle consisting of sacs and vesicles that process, packages and distributes molecules about or from the cell
granum
stack of chlorophyll-containing thylakoids in a chloroplast
intermediate filament
Ropelike assemblies of fibrous polypeptides in the cytoskeleton that provide support and strength to cells; so called because they are intermediate in size between actin filaments and microtubules.
leucoplast
plastid, generally colorless, that synthesizes and stores starch and oils
lysosome
membrane bounded vesicle that contains hydrolytic enzymes for digesting macromolecules and bacteria, used to recycle worn out cellular organelles
matrix
Unstructured semifluid substance that fills the space between cells in connective tissues or inside organelles.
mesosome
in a bacterium, plasma membrane that folds into the cytoplasm and increases surface area
microtubule
Small, cylindrical organelle composed of tubulin protein around an empty central core; present in the cytoplasm, centrioles, cilia, and flagella.
mitochondrion
membrane-bounded organelle in which ATP molecules are produced during the process of cellular respiration
motor molecule
protein that moves along either actin filaments or microtubules and translocates organelles
nuclear envelope
name for the phospholipid double membrane that separates the contents of the nucleus from the cytoplasm
nuclear pore
opening in the nuclear envelope that permits the passage of proteins into the nucleus and ribosomal subunits out of the nucleus
nucleoid
Where the DNA is concentrated in the prokaryotic cell; no membrane separates this region from the rest of the cell
nucleolus
Dark staining, spherical body in the nucleus that produces ribosomal subunits
nucleoplasm
semifluid medium of the nucleus containing chromatin
organelle
one of the small bodies that are found in the cytoplasm of a cell and that are specialized to perform a specific function
peroxisome
enzyme-filled vesicle in which fatty acids and amino acids are metabolized to hydrogen peroxide that is broken down to harmless products
plasma membrane
membrane surrounding the cytoplasm that consists of a phospholipid bilayer with embedded proteins; functions to regulate the entrance and exit of molecules from a cell
plasmid
extrachromosomal ring of accessory DNA in the cytoplasm of prokaryotes
plastid
organelles of plants and algae that are bounded by a double membrane and contain internal membranes and/or vesicles (chloroplasts, chromoplasts, leucoplasts)
polyribosome
string of ribosomes simultaneously translating regions of the same mRNA strand during protein synthesis
prokaryotic cell
A type of cell lacking a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed organelles; found only in the domains Bacteria and Archaea.
ribosome
Site of protein synthesis; composed of proteins and ribosomal RNA
rough ER
Membranous system of tubules, vesicles and sacs in cells; has attached ribosomes
secretion
release of a substance by exocytosis from a cell
signal peptide
sequence of amino acids that binds with a signal recognition particle (srp) causing a ribosome to bind to the endoplasmic reticulum
smooth ER
membranous system of tubules, vesicles, and sacs in eukaryotic cells; lacks attached ribosomes
spirillum
Long, rod-shaped bacterium that is twisted into a rigid spiral
spirochete
Flexible, spiral-shaped bacterium.
stroma
Opening in the underside of a leaf epidermis that allows carbon dioxide and oxygen to (gases) diffuse into and out of the leaf
surface to area to volume ratio
For any cell, organism, or geometrical solid, the ratio of surface area to volume; this is an important factor in setting an upper limit on the size a cell or organism can attain.
thylakoid
flattened sac within a granum whose membrane contains chlorophyll and where the light reactions of photosynthesis occur.
vector
in genetic engineering a means to transfer foreign genetic material into a cell
vacuole
membrane bounded sac, larger than a vesicle, usually functions in storage and can contain a variety of substances, in plants the vacuole fills much of the interior of the cell
vesicle
small membrane bounded sac that sores substances within a cell