carboxypeptidase (what is it? activated by what, released by what?)
Protein digesting enzyme that is activated by trypsin; released as procarboxypeptidase (inactive form)
what is intrinsic factor
a substance produced by the mucosa of the stomach and intestines that is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12
what is hydrolysis?
opposite of dehydration synthesis; breaks apart complex molecules by adding water
what is the pyloric sphincter?
the sphincter muscle of the pylorus that separates the stomach from the duodenum
what is a villus?
A fingerlike projection of the inner surface of the small intestine. Increases the surface area.
what is bile?
A substance produced by the liver that breaks up fat particles. (emulsifies fats into small droplets)
where is glucose absorbed and how?
absorbed into the blood stream by the large surface area of blood vessel filled villi.
what is a micelle?
helps to diffuse fats across the brush border, once on the other side, the fats are released
lipase digestion produces?
an enzyme secreted in the digestive tract that catalyzes the breakdown of fats into individual fatty acids that can be absorbed into the bloodstream
pepsinogen (secreted by, activated by, becomes ___which_____.)
Secreted inactively by chief cells; activated by HCl to become pepsin, which breaks down proteins into peptides
what is gastric lipase?
secreted by the chief cells in the stomach, hydrolyzes triglycerides into fatty acids and monoglycerides
what makes gastrin? (and what is it..)
polypeptide hormone secreted by the mucous lining of the stomach
what is trypsinogen?
activated in the duodenum by enterokinase, which is produced in the cells lining the duodenum
what is pancreatic amylase?
enzyme from the pancreas that further breaks down starches into disacharides (maltose, lactose, and sucrose)
what are the accessory organs of the digestive system
salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder
how are triglycerides transported in the lymph?
tryglycerides are turned into globules along with phospholipids and cholesterol and become coated with proteins, called chylomicrons, which enter the lacteals and transported by way of lymphatic vessels to the thoracic duct and end the blood at the left subclavian vein
what is the major digestion in the stomach?
digestion of starch continues, and digestion of proteins and tryglycerides begins.
what is not made by the pancreatic acini
glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, and pancreatic poypeptide.