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carboxypeptidase (what is it? activated by what, released by what?)

Protein digesting enzyme that is activated by trypsin; released as procarboxypeptidase (inactive form)

what is intrinsic factor

a substance produced by the mucosa of the stomach and intestines that is essential for the absorption of vitamin B12

what is hydrolysis?

opposite of dehydration synthesis; breaks apart complex molecules by adding water

what is salivary amylase?

Enzyme in saliva that breaks down starch

what is the pyloric sphincter?

the sphincter muscle of the pylorus that separates the stomach from the duodenum

what is a villus?

A fingerlike projection of the inner surface of the small intestine. Increases the surface area.

what is bile?

A substance produced by the liver that breaks up fat particles. (emulsifies fats into small droplets)

where does most absorption occur?

in the duodenum and the jejunum

where is maltose digested?

digested in the small intestine

pyloric valve sphincter through small intestine

pyloric valve, duodenum, jejunum, ileum, cecum

what is absorbed in the large intestine?

water, ions, and vitamins


stores and secretes bile

where is glucose absorbed and how?

absorbed into the blood stream by the large surface area of blood vessel filled villi.

what is a micelle?

helps to diffuse fats across the brush border, once on the other side, the fats are released

amylase digestion produces?

breaks down starch into glucose molecules (simple sugars/disaccharides)

lipase digestion produces?

an enzyme secreted in the digestive tract that catalyzes the breakdown of fats into individual fatty acids that can be absorbed into the bloodstream

what is aminopeptidase?

enzyme that breaks proteins into amino acids

pepsinogen (secreted by, activated by, becomes ___which_____.)

Secreted inactively by chief cells; activated by HCl to become pepsin, which breaks down proteins into peptides

what cell makes HCl?

parietal cell

what is gastric lipase?

secreted by the chief cells in the stomach, hydrolyzes triglycerides into fatty acids and monoglycerides

what makes gastrin? (and what is it..)

polypeptide hormone secreted by the mucous lining of the stomach

HCl does what?

kills bacteria and denatures proteins

what is trypsinogen?

activated in the duodenum by enterokinase, which is produced in the cells lining the duodenum

RNA digestion?

ribonuclease in pancreatic juice

what activates procarboxypeptidase?



these are used for increasing surface area for absorption in the sm. intestine

lingual lipase digests what, where?

digests lipids in the mouth

gastric lipase aids...

aids the digestion of triglycerides (mainly in milkfat)

what is pancreatic amylase?

enzyme from the pancreas that further breaks down starches into disacharides (maltose, lactose, and sucrose)

what is elastase?

a pancreatic enzyme that breaks down elastin

what is chymotrypsin?

protein splitting enzyme in pancreatic juice

what is sucrase, breaks into?

digestive enzyme that breaks sucrose into glucose and fructose

what is maltase, breaks into?

digestive enzyme that breaks malt sugar into two glucoses

what is lactase, breaks into?

digestive enzyme that breaks lactose into glucose and fructose

dipeptides absorption type

secondary active transport with H+

fructose absorption type

fascilitated diffusion; must be converted to glucose before use

short chain fatty acid absorption type

simple diffusion

pancreatic juice pH

7.1 - 8.2 alkaline

glucose absorption type

secondary active transport with Na+

what are rugae?

folds in the lining of the stomach, help mechanically grind up food

what epithelium is in the GI tract for absorption?

simple columnar epithelium

what are the accessory organs of the digestive system

salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder

where are there 3 layers of muscularis

the stomach

bile pH

7.6 - 8.6 alkaline

how are triglycerides transported in the lymph?

tryglycerides are turned into globules along with phospholipids and cholesterol and become coated with proteins, called chylomicrons, which enter the lacteals and transported by way of lymphatic vessels to the thoracic duct and end the blood at the left subclavian vein

what is the major digestion in the stomach?

digestion of starch continues, and digestion of proteins and tryglycerides begins.

what macromolecules are digested by trypsin and chymotrypsin?


what cells make gastrin?

G cells

what is not made by the pancreatic acini

glucagon, insulin, somatostatin, and pancreatic poypeptide.

what cell makes mucous?

exocrine cells

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