AP HUman Geography Language vocab

Chapter 6 about language in the AP Human Geography book.
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Terms in this set (...)

Language
Set of sounds, combination of sounds, and symbols used for communication.
Culture
Ralph Linton - Total knowledge, attitudes, and habitual behavior patterns shared by society members.
Standard Language
A language variant used for the norm of media, school, government, and public life by the country's political and intelligent elite.
Dialect
Variant of a language (Pronounciation, grammer, and vocabulary).
Isogloss
Geogrpahic boundary where linguist reatures occur.
Mutual Intelligibility
Two people understand each other when speaking.
Dialect Chains
Set of contigious dielcts where the one near each other at any place in the chain arw most closely related.
Language Family
Grouos of languages with shard, but slightly distant origin.
Subfamilies
Divisions within a family; commolities more definite.
Sound Shift
Slight word change in language within the subfamilies and language family from present time, backward to its origin.
Proto Indo-European
Ancestral Indo-european
Backward Reconstruction
Tracking Sound shifts and hardening of consonants "backwards" to the original language.
Extinct language
language without any native speakers.
Deep reconstruction
Recreate language that preceded it.
Nostratic
Proto Indo-European ancient ancenstor
Language Divergence
1 language formed into 2.
Language Convergence
2 languages collapsing into 1.
Renfrew's Hypothesis
-That said Proto Indo-European came from the Fertile Cresent. Anatolia into Europe, West Arc to North Africa and Arab, and East Arc into Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, and India.
Conquest Theory
THEORY said that early Pro-Indo-Eurpean speakers spread West by horseback, overpowering, beginning diffusion snd differentiation of the Indo-European tongues.
Dispersal Theory
THEORY said Indo-Eupopean first moved East to SouthWest asia -> Caspian Sea -> Russian-Ukraine Plains -> Balkans. Another part said it moved west.
Romance Languages
French, Spanish, Italian, Romanian, and Portugese
Germanic Languages
English, German, Danish, Norwegian, and Swedish
Slavanic Languages
Russian, Polish, Czech, Slovak, Ukrainian, Slovenian, Serbo-Croatian, and Bulgarian.
Lingua Franca
Ancient language in the Mediterranean ports usually for trading and commerce
Pidgin Language
Where 2 or more languages come. Part of each of them combine into a simplified structure and vocabulary.
Creole Language
Began as a Pidgin language, but later adopted as mother tongue by the people of the mother tongue land.
Monolingual States
Countries with one language spoken.
Multilingual States
Countries with more than one language spoken.
Official Language
Multilingual countries have language chosen by an educated, powerful elite, usually the language is spoken in Courts and in the government.
Global Language
Language most commonly used around the world. Basis of many speakers or trade prevelance.
Place
Uniqueness of a location.
Toponym
PLACE name