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Chp 7- The Jeffersonian Era
Terms in this set (88)
Concept that women should educate themselves in the principles of liberty, independence, and democracy so as to inculcate the coming generation with these republicans values.
Judith Sargent Murray
Published an essay defending women's rights to education: equal to men in intellect and potential, and needed a way to earn their own living and find a new role in society
Philadelphia physician that warned of the importance of sanitation
"Poem on the Rising Glory of America"
Poem by Hugh Henry Brackenridge that said America would be an example to the rest of the world.
Author of "Geography Made Easy"; said that American should have its own text-books to prevent English ideas from infecting the people
Created a simplified, American system of spelling. Wrote "American Spelling Book"
Wrote poems that tried to convey the special character of American civilization, part of the "Hartford Wits"
The Hartford Wits
A group of Connecticut writers who published "The Columbiad"
written by the Hartford Wits to convey the special character of American civilization
Charles Brockden Brown
His novels gave voice to distinctly American themes; characterized by horror and deviant behavior
Wrote satirical histories of early American life and fables about society in the New World. Folk tales such as "The Legend of Sleepy Hallow" and "Rip van Winkle"
Mercy Ottis Warren
Influential playwright and agitator during the Revolution who later published "History of the Revolution", which emphasized the heroism of the American struggle
An Anglican clergyman who published "Life of Washington", which became a best seller but was not historically accurate
The belief that God exists, but He withdrew from direct involvement with humans. Originated among French Enlightenment philosophers. (Jefferson and and Franklin)
"The Age of Reason"
Published by Thomas Paine; declared that Christianity was a religious superstition
Philosophies produced from religious skepticism that conflicted with the New England Congregational Church and rejected predestination, the idea of the Trinity, and Jesus as the Son of God. A permanent schism formed.
Founded the Universalist Church
The Second Great Awakening
The efforts of conservative theologians to fight the spread of religious rationalism; the Methodists and Baptists became the most abundant religion from heavy recruiting. It renewed religion as the center of American culture and redefined American religions by reaching out to the masses.
New Light Dissenters
People who had altered their religious view to make them more compatible with scientific rationalism
Founder of Methodism
Denomination that was authoritarian and hierarchical in structure; itinerant preachers were sent out through the nation to win recruits. It became the fastest-growing denomination in America.
Where a large gathering of Protestants gathered and preached. 10,000 men, women, children, white and black went to hear ministers preaching the gospel.
religious (usually evangelistic) meeting held in a large tent or outdoors and last several days
Methodist circuit-riding preacher who won national fame as he traveled all over the country telling people to embrace the church
Virginia slave who planned an uprising that was betrayed by other slaves. He and his followers were executed.
Delaware prophet who sparked a widespread revival with a message combining Christian an Indian imagery, and called for Indians to rise up to defend their lands.
Seneca prophet who had a "rebirth" after being an alcoholic and inspired other Indians to give up destructive customs from white society (whiskey, gambling, etc.)
Americans who didn't accept the teachings of the Second Great Awakening whose skeptical philosophies helped cause the revivals. They became a minority
built a spinning mill for the Quaker merchant Moses Brown: it was the first modern factory in America
Improved the steam engine and wrote America's first textbook of mechanical engineering: "The Young Mill-Wrights's and Miller's Guide"
Invented the cotton gin and created a machine that made each part of a gun (interchangeable parts): these revolutionized cotton production and weapon manufacturing
Man responsible for perfecting the steamboat and making it popular. The "Clermont" demonstrated the practicality of steam navigation
The time period when private companies were responsible for most of the construction of toll roads, because the state governments didn't have the money to fund them.
The District of Columbia
Place were congress visited briefly during sessions of the legislature: it was symbolic of the importance of federal government during the Jeffersonian era because it was so small and provincial
French architect who designed the capital
Federalist presidential nominee who lost to Jefferson in 1804
Secretary of Treasury who reduced government spending by cutting the small staff of the executive departments
West Point Academy
Jefferson helped establish this military academy, even though he was reducing the army and navy
Barbary States of North Africa
Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli: demanded regular tributes to the pirates there
Marbury v. Madison
Supreme Court case in which Marbury sued Madison for denying his commission to become a justice of the peace
One of Adams's "midnight appointments" whose commission hadn't been delivered before Adams left office
Secretary of State who refused to hand over the commission to Marbury. He was sent by Jefferson to demand that the British stop impressment. Became the 4th president
Refused to appoint Marbury as a justice of the peace, because he thought the court did not have that authority. This created the precedent of judicial review.
A Federalist judge appointed to the Supreme Court: Jefferson had him impeached for publicly criticizing the Jefferson administration.He was acquitted by the Senate, and the impeachment failed. (This is the only attempt in history to impeach a U.S. Supreme Court Justice.)
Treaty of Ildefonso
A secret treaty where Spain gave Louisiana back to France
Led a slave rebellion which took control of Haiti, the most important island of France's Caribbean possessions. The rebellion led Napoleon to feel that New World colonies were more trouble than they were worth, and encouraged him to sell Louisiana to the U.S.
As Minister to France, he negotiated the Louisiana Purchase along with Madison
The Louisiana Purchase
Napoleon sold Louisiana to the USA cheaply. Jefferson was not sure if this was constitutional, because the Constitution didn't specify whether the president could acquire territory
Lewis and Clark
Experienced frontiersmen and Indian fighters who were commissioned by Jefferson to map/explore the Louisiana Purchase region. It produced extensive maps of the area and recorded many scientific discoveries.
Shoshone woman who guided Lewis and Clark
His account of his western travels created an inaccurate impression of an uninhabitable land between the Missouri River and the Rockies
Group of extreme federalists who thought that the only way for New England federalists to continue holding power during the western expansion was to secede and form the "Northern Confederacy"
Leading federalist in NY who did not agree with the secessionist scheme, and thus lost the support of NY federalists.
Vice President who did not have prospects in his own republican party. The NY federalists turned to him because he was Hamilton's greatest rival. He killed Hamilton in a duel, and became a political outcast
The corrupt military governor of Louisiana Territory; made an allegiance with Burr to separate the western part of the United States from the East and expand their new confederacy with invasions of Mexico/Florida; he betrayed Burr when he learned that Jefferson knew of the treasonous plot.
The Burr Conspiracy
Burr's attempt to secede from the nation after taking over Mexico/Florida; established the definition of treason. Burr was not found guilty because he never actually took up arms.
The Napoleonic Wars
France vs Britain: both tried to prevent the US from trading with the other. American ships were seized by both sides and American sailors were "impressed," or forced, into the British navy. These violations would escalate and lead to the War of 1812.
Battle of Trafalgar
Battle where the British navy destroyed the French navy, so Napoleon had to pressure England through economic means instead.
The Continental System
An economic blockade of Britain that was also meant to make Europe more self-sufficient. Napoleon forbade anybody to trade with Britian
Orders in Council
Permitted the impressment of sailors and forbade neutral ships from visiting ports from which Britain was excluded unless they first went to Britain and traded for British goods. Led to the War of 1812.
The British demanded the return and surrender of four deserters from the royal navy, but commander James Barron refused. The British attacked, and Barron surrendered and the men were seized.
American commander of the Chesapeake who refused to allow the British to search the Chesapeake for runaway sailors.
Jefferson banned all American trade with any country to prevent incidents that might bring the nation to war. Congress could enforce this with the "force act"
Jefferson's not trading with, fighting with or associating with other countries
This law reopened trade with all nations except for Great Britain and France. Passed to replace the Embargo, which Jefferson ended right before leaving office
Macon's Bill No. 2
This replaced the Non-Intercourse Act; it reopened trade with Great Britain and France, but authorized the president to prohibit commerce with either if one became belligerent or violated neutral shipping
William Henry Harrison
Govenor of the Indiana territory who fought against Tecumseh and the Prophet in the battle of Tippecanoe
"The Indian Problem"
Jefferson offered the Indians a choice: they could assimilate or migrate west of the Mississippi
An Indian leader who preached the superior virtues of Indian culture and inspired a religious revival that brought Indians together to form joint political/military efforts
Chief of the Shawnees who knew that the Norwest Indian tribes had to unite to resist the advance of white civilization
Battle of Tippecanoe
Battle between Americans and Native Americans. Tecumseh and the Prophet attempted to oppress white settlement in the West, but defeated by William Henry Harrison. Led to talk of Canadian invasion and served as a cause to the War of 1812.
Representatives of both parties who were eager for war with Britain so they could take over their land and expand
Clay and Calhoun
Leaders of the War Hawks who wanted the conquest of Canada while Madison still hoped for peace
The War of 1812
Caused by: British restrictions of American neutrality rights at sea, American desire to obtain more land from Britain (the Canada incident resulting in burning of DC), and American fear of British aid to Indians who attacked frontier settlements.
Oliver Hazard Perry
Naval officer who led the US victory over the British on Lake Erie in 1813
Battle of Put-In-Bay
Battle On Lake Erie when Perry dispersed a British fleet here, it made another invasion of Canada possible.Canada was accessible through Detroit, and when the Americans seized Lake Erie, they got a chance to raid and burn York
The Battle of the Thames
Battle in Canada where Harrison's men killed Tecumseh so the Indians stopped fighting in the war, so and Americans won battle.
Abandoned plans for an invasion of Florida so that he could take revenge of the Creeks, who had been attacking white settlers with weapons given to them by the Spanish
The Battle of Horseshoe Bend
The battle in which Andrew Jackson defeated the Creek Indians. They ceded most of their lands to the US
Jackson led his men farther south and seized the Spanish fort here
War of 1812 site where Francis Scott Key was held prisoner. As battle ranges outside, he penned the words of Star Springled Banner
Francis Scott Key
United States lawyer and poet who wrote a poem after witnessing the British attack on Baltimore during the War of 1812
Battle of Plattsburgh
American force repelled a British invasion and secured the northern border of the US
Battle of New Orleans
battle between American troops under Andrew Jackson and British troops for control of New Orleans, ending in an American victory. Only later did they realized that a peace treaty ahd been signed several weeks prior
Federalist congressman who was a leader in the opposition of the Republicans, even though federalists were a minority. he openly accused them
Meeting of Federalists near the end of the War of 1812 in which the party listed it's complaints against the ruling Republican Party. These actions were largley viewed as traitorous to the country and lost the Federalist much influence
Treaty of Ghent
Lead by John Quincy Adams, Henry Clay, and Albert Gallatin. Americans gave up their demand for an end to impressment and the cession of Canada to the US., while Britain abandoned their call for an Indian buffer state
an agreement that limited navel power on the Great lakes for both the United States and British Canada. This improved Anglo-American relations
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