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Terms in this set (21)
What are Cells?
Cells are the basic structural and functional units of all living things
What three things do ALL Cells have?
1. Cell or plasma membrane (separates the cell from the outer environment)
2. Genetic material (DNA)
What are Prokaryotes? (hint: pro = ?; karyo =?)
Prokaryotes are organisms that lack a membrane-bound nucleus, mitochondria, or any other membrane organelles.
Some of these single-celled organisms possess characteristics of multicellular organisms
(Pro = before ; Karyo = nucleus )
What two domains can Prokaryotes be divided into?
Bacteria and Archeae
What are the two distinct type of prokaryotes that possess characteristics of multicellular organisms?
Some prokaryotes, such as cyanobacteria may form large colonies.
Others, such as myxobacteria, have multicellular stages in their life cycles
What is the difference between intracellular and extracellular?
intracellular = inside the cell
extracellular = outside the cell
What is water-soluble?
Water-soluble is able to be dissolved in water
What are all the intracellular water-soluble components in prokaryotes?
Proteins, DNA, and metabolites
What is a Protein? What is the function?
Proteins are organic compounds made up of hundreds or thousands of smaller units called amino acids (C,O,H,N), which are attached to one another in long chains
Proteins do most of the work in cells and are required for the structure, function, and regulation of the body's tissues and organs
What is a DNA?
DNA stands for Deoxyribonucleic Acid
DNA is a double helix formed by base pairs (A,T,G,C) attached to a sugar-phosphate backbone
DNA contains the instructions needed for an organism to develop, survive, and reproduce
What are metabolites?
Metabolites are the intermediates (a chemical compound formed by one reaction and then taking part in another, especially during synthesis) and products of metabolism
Where are all the intracellular water-soluble components located in the prokaryote?
In the prokaryotes, all the intracellular water-soluble components located TOGETHER in the cytoplasm enclosed by the cell membrane, rather than in separate cellular compartments
What is a special thing only present in prokaryotes that are bacteria? (hint: nucleus, membrane-bound organelles)
Bacteria possess protein-based bacterial microcompartments, which are thought to act as primitive organelles enclosed in protein shells
What are prokaryotic cells?
Prokaryotic cells are cells within prokaryotes, which are unicellular organisms
What are the four basic shapes of Bacteria?
Bacilli = rod-shaped
Cocci = sperical
Spirochaete = spiral-shaped
Vibrio = comma-shaped
What are four main structures shared by all prokaryotic cells, bacterial or Archaean?
plasma membrane, cytoplasm, ribosome, and genetic material (DNA and RNA, circular DNA & plasmid)
What are other structures that some prokaryotic cells have?
cell wall, cell capsule, pili (singular pillius), and flagella (singular flagellum)
What is the Prokaryotic Plasma Membrane?
The plasma membrane controls what goes in and out the cell
What is the Prokaryotic Cytoplasm?
What are the Prokaryotic Ribosomes?
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