19 terms

AP US History Period 1

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Mercantilism
A system of political economy based on government regulation 1650- Britain enacted navigation acts that controlled colonial commerce and manufacturing for the enrichment of Britain
Queen Elizabeth reduced imports and increased exports which helped expand the economy
Encomienda System
Sixteenth century - Spanish Kings granted Indian Labor to prominent men in Spanish America
The Indian men were granted protection and Christian instruction in pay for their labor
Chattel Slavery
A system of bondage in which a slave has the legal status of property no so can be bought and sold like such. Developed in the 1660s in Virginia and Maryland - caused controversy in morality and English law
Joint Stock Companies
A financial organization devised by English merchants around 1550 facilitating colonization of North America. A number of investors within the companies compiled their capital and received shares of stock in the enterprise in proportion to the share of their total investment
This allowed the Puritans in the northeast region to hold onto their power and force their traditions on society
Smallpox
When Europeans came to New World in exploration and conquest, they brought deadly diseases such as smallpox that wiped out 10s of millions of Native Americans. The diseases were not intentionally Imposed upon the natives, they just had no immunity to germs derived from domesticated animals like the Spanish did
Hernan Cortez
Spanish conquistador who conquered the Aztecs of Mexico in the early 1500s. Gained lots of riches and goods for Spain, helping it become the richest nation in Europe, Spanish settled in Mexico and developed the land and colonized
Indentured Servants
Young men from the West Indies who came to Virginia and Maryland in the 1700s contracted for service for four or five years without wages and Received passage across the Atlantic, room and board, ability to marry and work for themselves, and status as a free person at the end of the contract.
Republic
A state without a monarch or prince that is governed by representatives of the people starting in Italy during the Renaissance where elite Italians who gained wealth through trade in Asia ruled their city states as republics. The idea of humanism was stressed during this area and arts and literature flourished
Valladolid Debate
In Valladolid, Spain 1550-1551 debaters argued over what role Indians played in Spanish colonies. Bartolome de Las Casas argued that Indians were equally moral and human to Europeans so slavery was not justified. On the other side, they argued that Indians were less than human. This caused a large morality debate and led to the establishment of basic rights and arguments of justice for Indians.
Bartolome de Las Casas
Spanish priest who saw injustice and issue in the mistreatment of Indians by Europeans. He became an advocate for equal rights and by 1542 he persuaded the King to institute the New Laws which ended Indian slavery and halted forced labor which started the encomienda system.
Maize Cultivation
Laid a foundation for new ways of life as corn cultivation spread from Mesoamerica to North America around 1000 AD.. It led to the development of a large scale north american culture. Maize farming became the center of civilizations agricultural production and was helpful in trading.
Plantation Based Agriculture
Ideology started by Britain - produced products for a national market . European planter merchants ruled the societies and thousands of African slaves worked the fields primarily for sugar. They used mercantilist ideas to use advanced technology to produce sugar and send it to Europe in the Atlantic Slave Trade in the early 1600s.
Feudalism
Dominant social system in Europe in the 1400s in which nobility owned lands from the Crown in exchange for military service and vassals were tenants of the nobles and serfs worked the fields. The Atlantic Slave Trade allowed for the use of African slaves in the manors
Capitalism
The idea of self regulated business to cause motivation to produced improved goods at lower prices. In 1776 Adam Smith wrote about the concept developed by Laissez - Faire. In the 1880s the rise of monopolistic trusts led to strong competition and improvement of goods and efficiency.
Spanish Mission System
A frontier institution that incorporated Natives into the Spanish colonial empire through religion and Hispanic cultural aspects. Beginning in the 15th century Spaniards tried to spread Catholicism amongst the natives in the new world in an attempt to thoroughly implement Spanish life.
Political Autonomy
The property of having ones decisions respected, honored, and heeded in a political context. This allowed for the self development of individuals thoughts on the political situation as civilizations started to develop derived from the settlers in the Americas in the 17th and 18th centuries. It provided skepticism and questioning from people... Leading to the most well rounded governing
Yeomen
A yeoman began as an attendant in a noble household in the feudal system in Europe in the 15th century but eventually became known as a commoner who cultivates his own land.
Mestizos
A term applied to a person of biracial identity or most commonly the product of a Spanish man and a Native American woman. As the Spaniards conquered the Americas in the 15th century there was lots of gruesome rape and also consensual sex which lead to the production of a race known as the mestizos
Five Nation Iroquois
Five different groups of Native American people's in the northeast of the New World became united under a political confederacy introduced by the Spanish. They avoided violence and preached Christianity and also developed a democratic like government, women had rights and the nation's began functioning similarly to a modern civilization
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