50 terms

Endocrine system

endocrine glands
release their secretions directly into the blood
the nervous system reacts to stimuli ____ compared to the endocrine system, adapts ____ compared to the endocrine system, and has _____ effects compared to the endocrine system.
quickly; quickly; specific
____ are secreted by one cell into the tissue fluid, diffuse to nearby cells in the same tissue, and stimulate their physiology
this figure shows the major organs of the endocrine system. what does "1" represent?
the pineal gland
this figure shoes the major organs of the endocrine system. what structure secretes growth hormone (GH or somatotropin)?
the ____ is not an endocrine gland but it has a role in endocrine function
what makes a cell a target of a particular hormone?
the presence of a receptor for that particular hormone
the neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary) secretes
oxytocin (OT)
thyrotropin-releasing hormone targets the
anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)
the hypophyseal portal system connects
the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) with the hypothalamus
these are all hypothalamis hormones except
luteinizing hormone (LH)
antidiuretic hormone (ADH) targets the
____ has more target cells in the body than any of the others
growth hormone (GH)
target organs most often regulate the pituitary gland via
negative feedback inhibition
the infundibulum is
a projection of the hypothalamus from which the pituitary gland hangs
____ secretion is controlled by neuroendocrine reflexes, whereas ____ secretion is controlled by negative feedback mechanisms
oxytocin (OT); antidiurectic hormone (ADH)
negative feedback inhibition occurs when
thyroid hormone (TH) targets the anterior pituitary
this figure shows the hypothalamo-pituitary-target organ relationships. Which hormone stimulates glucocorticoids secretion?
this figure shows the hypothalamo-pituitary-target organ relationships. Which hormone is NOT a tropin?
this hormone plays an important role in synchronizing function with the cycle of daylight and darkness
the ____ secretes hormones that stimulate the development of lymphatic organs and regulates development and activity of T cells (white blood cells)
the ____ secretes a hormone that increases the body's metabolic rate, promotes alertness and quickness reflexes, and stimulates the fetal nervous system
thyroid gland
the ____ secrete (s) a hormone as a response to hypocalcemia
parathyroid glands
the ____ secrete (s) ____, which promotes Na+ and water retention
adrenal cortex; aldosteron
the zona fasciculata in the adrenal gland secretes
many hours after a meal, alpha (a) cells in the pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) secrete
glucagon, which raises blood glucose
these are all secreted by the pancreas except
somatotropin (growth hormone)
this gland has both endocrine and exocrine function
the ovary
____ is not a steriod hormone
____ is synthesized in the rough endoplasmis reticulum
absence of iodine in the diet leads to
T4 and T3 are ____ hormones that are mainly transported ____ in the blood.
monoamine; bound to thyroxine-binding globulin (TGB)
_____ enters the target cell's nuclei and acts directly on the genes
this is the last step in the sequence of events happening when cyclic AMP acts as a second messenger
enzymes are activated of deactivated by the action of protein kinases
even a small quantity of hormone can have a strong effect on its target cell because of
enzyme amplification
this figure shows
modulation of target cells sensitivity by down-regulation
neither follicle simulating (FSH) hormone nor testosterone alone can stimulate significant sperm production, whereas when they act together, the testes produce some 300,000 sperm per minute. This exemplifies
the synergist effect
the resistance stage in the general adaptation syndrome (stress response) is dominated by
during the exhaustion stage of the general adaptation syndrome (stress response) stress overwhelms homeostasis. a characteristic of this stage is that
energy demands are met primarily by protein metabolism
promotes breakdown of fat and protein
the initial response to stress is called ____ and is mediated mainly by ____
the alarm reactin; norepinephrine and epinephrine
eicosandoids are derived from
arachidonic acid
prostaglandins have all the following roles except
to stop fever and pain
aspirin and ibuprofen block
the action of cyclooxygenase
diabetes insipidus is caused by
antidiurectic hormone (ADH) hyposecretion
all these can cause Cushing syndrome except
hyperactivity of the adrenal medulla
growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion causes gigantism when it begins in childhood, but it is more likely to cause ____ when it begins in adulthood
diabetes mellitus is characterized by the following except
these statements about diabetes mellitus (DM) are correct except
both type I and type II DM are characterized by lack of, or low levels of, insulin
which of the following is the correct sequence of events leading to polyuria and dehydration
hyperglycemia --> glucose enters renal tubules --> glucose transport maximum exceeded --> glucose in urine raises osmolarity of tubular fluid --> osmotic diuresis