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endocrine glands

release their secretions directly into the blood

the nervous system reacts to stimuli ____ compared to the endocrine system, adapts ____ compared to the endocrine system, and has _____ effects compared to the endocrine system.

quickly; quickly; specific

____ are secreted by one cell into the tissue fluid, diffuse to nearby cells in the same tissue, and stimulate their physiology


this figure shows the major organs of the endocrine system. what does "1" represent?

the pineal gland

this figure shoes the major organs of the endocrine system. what structure secretes growth hormone (GH or somatotropin)?


the ____ is not an endocrine gland but it has a role in endocrine function


what makes a cell a target of a particular hormone?

the presence of a receptor for that particular hormone

the neurohypophysis (posterior pituitary) secretes

oxytocin (OT)

thyrotropin-releasing hormone targets the

anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis)

the hypophyseal portal system connects

the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) with the hypothalamus

these are all hypothalamis hormones except

luteinizing hormone (LH)

antidiuretic hormone (ADH) targets the


____ has more target cells in the body than any of the others

growth hormone (GH)

target organs most often regulate the pituitary gland via

negative feedback inhibition

the infundibulum is

a projection of the hypothalamus from which the pituitary gland hangs

____ secretion is controlled by neuroendocrine reflexes, whereas ____ secretion is controlled by negative feedback mechanisms

oxytocin (OT); antidiurectic hormone (ADH)

negative feedback inhibition occurs when

thyroid hormone (TH) targets the anterior pituitary

this figure shows the hypothalamo-pituitary-target organ relationships. Which hormone stimulates glucocorticoids secretion?


this figure shows the hypothalamo-pituitary-target organ relationships. Which hormone is NOT a tropin?


this hormone plays an important role in synchronizing function with the cycle of daylight and darkness


the ____ secretes hormones that stimulate the development of lymphatic organs and regulates development and activity of T cells (white blood cells)


the ____ secretes a hormone that increases the body's metabolic rate, promotes alertness and quickness reflexes, and stimulates the fetal nervous system

thyroid gland

the ____ secrete (s) a hormone as a response to hypocalcemia

parathyroid glands

the ____ secrete (s) ____, which promotes Na+ and water retention

adrenal cortex; aldosteron

the zona fasciculata in the adrenal gland secretes


many hours after a meal, alpha (a) cells in the pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans) secrete

glucagon, which raises blood glucose

these are all secreted by the pancreas except

somatotropin (growth hormone)

this gland has both endocrine and exocrine function

the ovary

____ is not a steriod hormone


____ is synthesized in the rough endoplasmis reticulum


absence of iodine in the diet leads to


T4 and T3 are ____ hormones that are mainly transported ____ in the blood.

monoamine; bound to thyroxine-binding globulin (TGB)

_____ enters the target cell's nuclei and acts directly on the genes


this is the last step in the sequence of events happening when cyclic AMP acts as a second messenger

enzymes are activated of deactivated by the action of protein kinases

even a small quantity of hormone can have a strong effect on its target cell because of

enzyme amplification

this figure shows

modulation of target cells sensitivity by down-regulation

neither follicle simulating (FSH) hormone nor testosterone alone can stimulate significant sperm production, whereas when they act together, the testes produce some 300,000 sperm per minute. This exemplifies

the synergist effect

the resistance stage in the general adaptation syndrome (stress response) is dominated by


during the exhaustion stage of the general adaptation syndrome (stress response) stress overwhelms homeostasis. a characteristic of this stage is that

energy demands are met primarily by protein metabolism


promotes breakdown of fat and protein

the initial response to stress is called ____ and is mediated mainly by ____

the alarm reactin; norepinephrine and epinephrine

eicosandoids are derived from

arachidonic acid

prostaglandins have all the following roles except

to stop fever and pain

aspirin and ibuprofen block

the action of cyclooxygenase

diabetes insipidus is caused by

antidiurectic hormone (ADH) hyposecretion

all these can cause Cushing syndrome except

hyperactivity of the adrenal medulla

growth hormone (GH) hypersecretion causes gigantism when it begins in childhood, but it is more likely to cause ____ when it begins in adulthood


diabetes mellitus is characterized by the following except


these statements about diabetes mellitus (DM) are correct except

both type I and type II DM are characterized by lack of, or low levels of, insulin

which of the following is the correct sequence of events leading to polyuria and dehydration

hyperglycemia --> glucose enters renal tubules --> glucose transport maximum exceeded --> glucose in urine raises osmolarity of tubular fluid --> osmotic diuresis

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