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Professor Wallace. Janson's History of Art: The Western Tradition, 8th Edition.

Chinese Horse, Lascaux Cave, Dorgone, France.


Rhinoceros, Wounded Man, and Bison, Lascaux, Cave, Dordogne, France.

Woman of Willendorf, Limestone.

Stele inscribed with the Law Code of Hammurabi.

Menkaure and His Wife, Queen Khamerenebty II, Slate, Eqyptian

Figure, from the Cyclades, Marble. Aegean

Harpist, Marble, Amorgos, Cyclades. Aegean

The Lioness Gate, Mycenae, Greece

Kore (Maiden), Limestone. Greek

New York Kouros (Youth), Marble. Greek

Kroisos (Kouros from Anavysos), Marble. Greek

Kritios Boy, Marble. Greek

Zeus, Bronze. Greek

Diskobolos (Discus Thrower), Roman copy after bronze original, Marble. Greek

Doryphoros (Spear Bearer), Roman copy after an original by Polykleitos. Greek

Riace Warrior A, found in the sea off Riace, Italy, Bronze. Greek

Riace Warrior B, found in the sea off Riace, Italy, Bronze. Greek

Acropolis (view from the west), Athens. Greek

Parthenon, Iktinos and Kallikrates, Athens. Greek

Model of Athena Parthenons by Pheidias. Greek

Three goddesses, from east pediment of the Parthenon, Marble. Greek

Freize above western entrance of the cella of the parthenon, Acropolis. Greek

Nike adjusting her sandal, from balustrade of Temple of Athena Nike, Marble. Greek

Grave Stele of Hegeso, Marble. Greek

Mnesikles, the Propylaia, Acropolis, Athens. Greek

Temple of Athena Nike, Acropolis, Athens. Greek

The Erechtheion, Acropolis, Athens. Greek

Hermes, Roman copy after an original by Praxiteles, Marble. Greek

Nike of Samothrace, Pythokritos of Rhodes (?), Marble. Greek

L'Arringatore (the Orator), Bronze. Etruscan

Laocoon, Marble. Roman

Temple of Portunus, Rome. Roman

"Brutus", Bronze. Roman

Veristic male portrait, Marble. Roman

Colosseum, Rome. Roman

Interior of the Pantheon, Rome. Roman

Pantheon, Rome. Roman

Augustus of Primaporta, possibly a Roman copy of a statue of Marble. Roman

Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius, Bronze. Roman

Ara Pacis Augustae, Marble. Roman

Imperial Procession south frieze, Ara Pacis Augustae, Marble. Roman

Arch of Titus, Marble. Roman

Relief in bay of Arch of Titus, showing procession of spoils from the Temple in Jerusalem, Marble. Roman

Relief in bay of Arch of Titus, showing Titus riding in triumph, Marble. Roman

Column of Trajan, Rome, Marble. Roman

Lower portion of Column of Trajan, Marble. Roman

Aqueduct, Segovia. Roman

Scenes of Dionysiac Mystery CUlt, form the Villa of the Mysteries, Pompeii. Roman Art

Wall painting from the Villa of Publius Fannius Synistor at Boscoreale, near Pompeii, Fresco on lime plaster. Roman

Wall painting of garden, from the Villa of Livia at Primaporta. Roman

Basilica of Maxentius, renamed Basilica of Constantine, Rome

Portrait of Constantine the Great, Marble. Roman

Ambulatory of abbey church of Saint-Denis

West facade of abbey church of Saint-Denis. Gothic

Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Chartres (from the south). Gothic

Jamb statues, west portal of cathedral of Notre-Dame, Chartres. Gothic

Notre Dame de la Belle Verriere, cathedral of Notre-Dame Chartres, Stained-glass window. Gothic

Jamb statues, south transept portal of cathedral of Notre-Dame, Chartres. Left-most figure, St. Theodore. Gothic

Cathedral of Notre-Dame, Reims. Gothic

Annunciation and Visitation, west portal of cathedral of Notre-Dame, Reims. Gothic

Interior of upper chapel, Sainte-Chapelle, Paris. Gothic

Sainte-Chapelle, Paris. Gothic

Chartres Cathedral Royal Portal, France. Gothic

Market of Trajan, Apollodorus of Damscus, Rome. High Empire

Forum of Trajan, Apollodorus of Damascus, Rome. High Empire

Helios and his horses, Pediment at the Parthenon, Classical. Greek

Charioteer, Classical, Bronze. Greek

Mantiklos Apollo, Archaeic, Greece.

Stonehenge, Salisbury Plain, England, Mesolithic, Stone. Post and lintel (8ft opening max)

Hall of Bulls, Paleolithic, cave painting from Lascaux, France, cave wall.

Pech-Merie spotted horse and negative hands, paleolithic, cave painting in France, cave wall.

480 BCE

Persian invasion of, and defeat at, Greece.

Pyramids. Over 1800", off 1"

The passageway or corridor of achurch that runs parallel to the length of the building. Often flanks the nave, sometimes set off from it by rows of piers or columns.


A covered walkway. In a basilican church, semicircular passage around the apse.


A semicircular or polygonal niche terminating one or both ends of the nave in a Roman basilica. In a Christian church, it is usually palced at the east end of the nave beyond the transept or choir.


Series of arches supported by piers or columns. When attached to a wall they form a blind term.


A vault formed by a continuous semicircular arch so that it is shaped like a half-cylinder.

Barrel vault

Subdivision of the interior space of a building. Usually a series of terms is formed by consecutive architectural supports.


An arcade with no openings. The arches and supports are attached decoratively to the surface of a wall.

Blind arcade

A sculpted female figure used in place of a column as an architectural support (male version: atlas).


The principal enclosed room of a temple used to hosue an image. Also called the naos. The entire body of a temple as distinct from its external parts.


A row of windows in the upper part of a wall that rises above an adjoining roof. Its purpose is to provide direct lighting, as in a basilica or a church.


A place of religious seclusion such as a monastery or nunnery. An open court attached to a church or monastery and surrounded by an ambulatory. Used for study, meditation, and exercise.


A recessed, geometrically shaped panel in a ceiling.


Italian word for "set against". A composition developed by the Greeks to reprsent moveemnt in a figure. THe parts of the body are placed asymmetrically in opposition to each other around a central axis, and careful attention is paid to the distribution of weight.


A vault formed by progressively projecting courses of stone or brick, which eventually meet to form the highest point of the vault.

Corbel vault

A column capital ornamented with acanthus leaves, introduced in Greece in the late 5th century BCE and used by Roman architects throughout the empire. Third order.

Corinthian capital

The area in a church where the transept crosses the nave, frequently emphasized by a dome or crossing tower.


A column characterized by a simple cushionlike abacus and the absecne of a base. First order.

Doric Column

In a classical order, the entire structure above the columns' this usually includes architrave, frieze, and cornice.


A swelling of the shaft of a column.


Technique of painting on plaster with pigments ground in water so that the paint is absorbed by the plaster and becomes part of the wall itself.


A continuous band of painted or sculptured decoration. In a Classical building, the part of the netablature between the architrave and the cornice.


A vault formed by the intersection of two barrel vaults at right angles to each other.

Groin vault

A column characterized by a base and a capital with two volutes.

Iconic column

The veritcal sides of an opening. In Romanesque and Gothic churches, the term of doors and windows are often cut on a slant outward, or "splayed", thus providing a broader surface for sculptural decoration.


Greek word for "maiden". An Arcahic Greek state of a standing, draped female.


From the Greek "big" and "stone". A huge stone such as those used in cromlechs and dolmens.


The element of a Doric frieze between two onsecutive triglyphs, sometimes left plain but often decorated with paint or relief sculpture.


The transverse entrance hall of a church, sometimes enclosed but often open on one side to a preceding atrium.


The central isle of a Roman basilica, as distinguished from the side aisles.


A circular opening at the top of a dome used to admit light.


A vault is a stone or brick roof. Term result from the intersection of two barrel vaults; the place where the arched surfaces meet is called the groin. Adding ribs or thickening of the groins increases the strength of the roof.

Ribbed groin vaults

A style of vault in which projecting surface arches, known as ribs, are raised along the intersections of segemnets of the vault. Term may provide architeectural support as well as decoration ot he vault's surface.

Ribbed vault

The substructure of a Classical building, especially a Greek temple.


A platform or masonry floor above the stereobate forming the foundation for the columns of a Greek temple.


The section of a nave wall above the arcade and below the clerestory. It frequently consists of a blind arcade with three openings in each bay.


Interior of Upper Church, Basilica of San Francesco, Assisi. Italian Renaissance

Annonymous (Probably Giotto). St. Francis Preaching to the Birds, from Basilica of San Francesco, Assisi, Fresco. Italian Renaissance

Giotto, Christ Entering Jerusalem, Arena Chapel, Padua, Fresco. Italian Renaissance

Interior of Arena Chapel, Padua. Italian Renaissance

Giotto, The Lamentation, Arena Chapel, Padua, Fresco. Italian Renaissance

Robert Campin, Merode (Altarpiece) Triptych, Oil on oak. Flemish. Northern Renaissance.

Jan van Eyck, Man in a Red Turban (Self-Portrait), oil on panel. Northern Renaissance.

Jan van Eyck, The "Arnolfini Portrait", oil on panel, Flemish. Northern Renaissance

Garden of Earthly Delight, Hieronymus Bosch, Oil on panel. Northern Renaissance.

Garden of Earthly Delight, Hieronymus Bosch. Closed triptych

St. George, Donatello, Marble, Early Italian Renaissance.

Theater, Epidauros. Hellenistic Greek

Pharos of Alexandria. Hellenistic Greek

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