94 terms

Psychology Unit 1

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Replication
Repetition of an experiment to prove a theory
Type one error
You say there was a significant finding but there wasn't (false positive)
Type two error
You say there wasn't a significant finding but there was (false negative)
Dopamine
Neurotransmitter that controls reward-motivated behavior
Learning curve graph
Test score=dependent variable
Amount of practice=independent variable
Psychology
Scientific study of behavior and mental processes
Psychiatry
Medical doctors licensed to prescribe drugs and otherwise treat physical causes of psychological disorders
Nature vs nurture
Big psych issue?
Dispositional
Personality
Fundamental attribution error
"The original sin"
Tendency for observers when analyzing one's behavior, to underestimate the impact of the situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition
Structuralism
Focusing on self-reporting of inner thoughts relating to simple interviews (introspection) that would provide insight into the workings and basic structure of consciousness
Introspection
The examination or observation of one's own mental and emotional processes
Wundt
Structuralist
"Father of Modern Psychology"
Titchener
Structuralist
Studied under Wundt
Functionalism
Focused on how mental and behavioral processes function to allow organisms adapt, survive, and flourish also relied on introspection
William James
Functionalist
"Father of American Psychology"
Dissed introspection
Stanley Hall
Functionalist
Studied under James; created the first psych lab in America @Johns Hopkins
First president of the APA in 1892
Mary Calkins
Functionalist
Studied under James @Harvard
First female president of the APA in 1905
Behavioral Approach
Focus on observable behaviors not mental processes
Response to external stimuli, not in response to their thoughts or to past unconscious experiences
Cost-benefit analysis
No free will
Pavlov
Behavioral Approach
Dog's digestive systems (bell, food, spit)
0.5 seconds optimal for animals
Watson
Behavioral approach
"Little Albert experiment"
IRB would never approve today; permanent damage to baby
Institutional review board
Ensures that all human subject research be conducted in accordance with all federal, institutional, and ethical guidelines.
Classical conditioning
A type of learning in which an organism comes to associate stimuli
Moro
An infants reaction to its head being dropped: sprawls arms and legs, cries
Babinski
Occurs when you stroke a baby's foot and it curls it's toes
Grasping
When you touch a babies hand and it curls it's fingers
Gestalt
"Unified whole"
Sensation
Taste, touch, sight, hearing, balance, smell
Perception
How the brain interprets data
Law of closure
Closes the gaps our brain sees- objects grouped together are seen as a whole
Law of continuation
Shows movement
Figure
Object
Ground
Background
Priming
Setting the stage for you to think
Gestaltist
Max Wertheimer
Gestaltist
Kurt Koffka
Gestaltist
Wolfgang Köhler
Psychodynamic approach
Psychoanalysis
Unconscious mind is a storehouse of motivation, needs, desires, memories, and conflicts (NOT + forces)
Focus on internal drives, person's past experiences and symbols arise
Free association
Method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing
Freudian slip
An unintentional error regarded as revealing subconscious feelings
Psychodynamic
Sigmund Freud
Psychodynamic
Alfred Adler
Psychodynamic
Carl Jung
Psychodynamic
Karen Horney
Humanistic Approach
Behaviors are tied to feelings of self-worth; people strive toward self development and personal fulfillment
Free will
Unconditional positive regard
An attitude of total acceptance toward another person
Humanist
Abraham Maslow
Humanist
Carl Rogers
Humanist
Harry Harlow
Humanist
Mary Ainsworth
Humanist
Erik Erikson
Biological Approach
Behaviors are determined through interrelationships of the: brain's neurotransmitters, nervous system, endocrine system (hormones), tumors, diseases, and genes
Evolutionary Approach
Subdivision of Biological Approach
Focuses on the fact that behavior is adaptive and hereditary
Evolutionary psychology
The study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using principles of natural selection
Biological
William James and Carl Lange
Biological
Stanley Schachter
Biological
Walter Cannon and Philip Bard
Cognitive Approach
Peoples thoughts and behaviors come from the way they interpret and mentally process their experiences
Topics: learning styles, attention span, memory, language composition
Cognitive
Howard Gardner
Cognitive
Robert Sternberg
Cognitive
Jean Piaget
Cognitive
Konrad Lorenz
Ebbinghaus
Developed the forgetting curve
Serial position effect
Our tendency to recall best the last and first items in a list
Biopsychosocial Approach
Socio-cultural
Behavior can only be understood within their social context
Socio-cultural
Stanley Milgram
Socio-cultural
Solomon Asch
Socio-cultural
Phillip Zimbardo
Socio-cultural
Albert Bandura
Rational emotive behavior therapy
Albert Ellis
Focused on helping clients change their irrational beliefs
Testing effect
Taking a test with the key to study
Operational definition
Statement of the procedures used to define research variables
Descriptive research
Research that reveals what happened
Correlational research
Research that predicts future events
Experimental research
Research that shows causation
Case study
Descriptive Research
Observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
Strength: further study
Weakness: time consuming; anectodal
Survey
Descriptive Research
Technique for ascertaining self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people
Strength: cheap&quick; any group; gold standard
Weakness: write effectively (neutral); people lie
Naturalistic observation
Descriptive Research
Researcher watches and records behaviors of subjects in their natural environment without intervention
Strengths: good way to observe, lead to good hypotheses
Weakness: cannot explain behaviors-only describe; Hawthorne Effect
Hawthorne Effect
When you know you're being watched so you act different
Longitudinal study
Descriptive Research
A group of subjects are followed and observed for a lifetime
Terman's Termites
Strength: takes a century
Weakness: attrition
Cross-sectional study
Study in which people of different ages are compared with one another
Illusory correlations
Correlation research
You think there is a relationship, but there isn't one
"Correlation is not causation, but it sure is a hint"
Experimental group
Subjected to experimental condition
Control group
Not subjected to experimental condition
Expectancy bias
Researcher's bias causes them to subconsciously influence the participants of an experiment
Confounding bias
An extraneous variable in a statistical model that correlates (directly or inversely) with both the dependent variable and the independent variable.
Confirmation bias
Tendency to seek information that confirms existing beliefs
Single blind
Subjects do not know whether or not they're in the control group or experimental group, but the researcher does
Double blind
Both subjects and researcher do not know which subjects are in the control and experimental groups
Random sample
A sample that fairly represents a population because each member has an equal chance of inclusion
Random assignment
Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance thus minimizing differences between those assigned groups
Validity
The extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to
Reliability
Mixed into a consistent results, as assessed by the consistency of scores, on alternate forms of the test, or on retesting
Statistically significant
A statistical statement of how likely it is that a result occurred by chance