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From ___ weeks of gestation the amniotic fluid is mostly made up of fetal urination and respiratory secretions.
List some functions of amniotic fluid:
preventing fetal injury,
providing mobility for practicing breathing,
swallowing exercises, fighting infection,
maintaining cervical length and consistency
A deepest pocket of less than ______ is most widely accepted for oligohydramnios.
AFI of less than ____ is the generally accepted criterion used to diagnose oligohydramnios
An AFI between _____ and _____ is considered normal.
5.1 and 18cm
What is renal agenesis?
the congenital absence of one or both kidneys from the complete lack of formation.
renal agenesis is a developmental anomaly that occurs at ___ to ___ weeks.
___ main embryologic events are necessary for normal formation of the kidneys.
failure of the development of the ________ results in complete absence of the kidney.
the sonographic criteria for the diagnosis of bilateral renal agenesis are:
1. presence of severe oligohydramnios or anhydramnios after 14-16 weeks gestation
2. failure to visualize the fetal kidneys and the urinary bladder
the fetal kidneys may be visualized after ___ weeks with transvaginal sonography
What is characterized by nonobstructive dilation of the collecting ducts in the kidneys and hepatic fibrosis?
ARPKD (Autosomal Recessive Polycystic Kidney Disease)
Sonographic findings of ARPKD in utero:
enlarged echogenic kidneyswith loss of corticomedullary differentiation along with oligohydramnios.
(Numerous closely spaced small cysts)
Evidence of renal enlargement and marked echogenicity (ARPKD) is usually present by __ weeks.
What occurs when parenchymal dysplasia causes renal cysts?
Is MCDK congenital?
A strong association exists between MCDK and _______
MCDK sonographic presentation:
-multiloculated abdominal mass consisting of multiple thin-walled cysts that do not appear to connect.
-kidney enlarged with irregular outline
-absent renal pelvis
mild hydronephrosis is described as dilation of the _____
moderate hydro is described as dilation of _______
renal pelvis and calyces
severe hydro is described as gross dilation of the _____ with a decrease in _________.
the collecting system
renal cortical tissue
_______ obstruction is the most common cause of congenital hydro
The AP diameter on a transverse scan should measure less than ___ for mild dilation, __ to __ for moderate, and more than ____ for marked dilation.
7 - 15 mm
____ obstruction describes an obstruction at the junction of the distal ureter and bladder.
_____ is the most common cause of bladder outlet obstruction.
What is accompanied by an enlarged bladder, bilateral hydro and hydroureters?
PUV only occurs in (male/female) fetuses and may be accompanied by ___________ syndrome.
what is the sonographic sign for PUV obstruction?
SGA is generally defined as a birth weight or fetal weight less than the ____ percentile.
IUGR has traditionally been subdivided into two growth patterns: ______ and ________
symmetric and asymmetric
Preeclampsia is characterized by the new onset of ______ and _______ after ___ weeks of gestation.
hypertension, proteinuria, 20
PROM is rupture of the amniotic membrane before _____.
the onset of labor
When PROM happens before 37 weeks, it is considered ________
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