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4.6b DNA, Chromatin, and Chromosomes
Terms in this set (26)
Building blocks of DNA and RNA; composed of a nitrogenous base, a phosphate group, and a sugar.
A type of nucleotide, composed of the five-carbon sugar deoxyribose, a phosphate, and one of four nitrogenous bases.
What are the four nitrogenous bases that can make up DNA?
Adenine (A), Cytosine (C), Guanine (G), and Thymine (T).
A phosphate group that links nucleotide monomers to form a polymer strand.
What type of bond forms between two DNA molecules when two complementary nucleotides line up?
What structure does DNA form?
Double helix structure
What is complementary base pairing?
The specific interaction between bases.
What does adenine pair with only?
What does cytosine pair with?
What does DNA house?
How many pairs of nucleotides are found in the DNA of a human cell?
Over 3 billion pairs of nucleotides
What does DNA wind around in order to form the packaging complex, nucleosome?
What is the complex made up of histones and DNA?
What does the chromatin resemble?
An unrolled spool of therad.
Genetic material of the nucleus in a nondividing cell.
When does DNA take the form of a chromatin?
When a cell is not diving, the DNA and its associated proteins are in the form of a finely filamented mass.
During cell division, what form does the chromatin take?
The chromatin forms tightly coiled spirales called chromosomes.
The most organized level of genetic material; a single long molecule of DNA and associated proteins; becomes visible only when the cell is dividing.
Segment of DNA containing information to direct synthesis of a specific protein; functional unit of DNA.
Genes are made up of what type of segments?
Genes compose about what percent of the total amount of DNA?
What is the average length of a gene?
About 3000 nucleotide base pairs.
What is the 'start' signal of transcription in a gene?
What is the 'stop' signal of transcription in a gene?
What is transcription of DNA?
Copying of a gene into an RNA molecule to direct the synthesis of a protein.
Describe the structural relationship of DNA and chromatin, and the functional relationship of DNA and genes.
DNA forms a finely filamented mass called chromatin when the cell is not diving. DNA is made up of segmental units called genes that provide instructions for replication.