4.9 Cell Aging and Death
Terms in this set (9)
What are some effects of cellular aging?
Reduced metabolic functions of normal cells; reduced ability of cells to maintain homeostasis; alteration in structure or number of organelles.
What is one example of how aging affects a specific organelle?
If mitochondrial functions begin to fail due to aging of a cell, the cell's ability to synthesize ATP diminishes.
What is one example of how aging affects genetic information?
Changes in the distribution and structure of chromatin and chromosomes may occur, resulting in clumping, shrinking, or fragmentation due to repeated divisions.
What are the two ways by which cells die?
 They are killed by harmful agents or mechanical damage;  They are induced to commit suicide, a process of programmed cell death.
What is the term for the process of programmed cell death?
Describe the process of apoptosis.
It is an orderly, well-defined continuous degradative series of steps to destroy and remove cellular components and eventually cell remnants.
What initiates apoptosis?
Ligand-receptor signaling does.
What turns on when a ligand binds to a receptor in apoptosis?
Inactive, self-destructive enzymes within the cytoplasm turn on and initiate cell suicide.
What are the self destructive actions performed in apoptosis?
Nuclear changes (chromatin degradation); destruction of DNA polymerase; digestion of the DNA ; shrinkage in volume; digestion of cytoskeleton; abnormal development in both organell and plasma membrane structure; condensation of the cytoplasm and destruction of organelles; initiation of other cell memrane signals to stimulate destruction of the cell externally by phagocytic cells; formation of irregular blebs (bubbles) on the cell membrane surface.
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