Create an account
The entire body of both non-woody (herbaceous) and young woody plants is covered by a layer of _____.
The walls of epidermal cells that are exposed to the air are covered with a waxy _____ to minimize water loss.
Guard cells, which are epidermal cells with _____, surround microscopic pores called _____.
Ridges and cracks that appear on the stem surface because of the overproduction of cork by cork cambium
_____ cells are the most abundant and correspond best to the typical plant cell. They are the least specialized of the cell types and are found in all organs of a plant.
_____ cells have very thick walls and are nonliving--their only function is to give strong support.
Sclerenchyma cells have thick secondary cell walls impregnated with _____, which is a highly resistant organic substance that makes the walls tough and hard.
structures that contain different tissues and perform one or more specific functions that allow them to live and grow
_____ buds can develop into branches of stems or flowers, the reproductive structures of a plant.
The root system is connected to the shoot system by _____ tissue (brown) that extends from the roots to the leaves.
A _____, the main axis of a plant, has a terminal bud that allows the _____ to elongate and produce new leaves.
An _____ bud, located at anode in the upper angle between the leaf and the stem can produce new branches of the stem (or flowers).
_____ are the major part of a plant that carries on photosynthesis, a process that requires water, carbon dioxide, and sunlight.
Plants that bear leaves the entire year are called _____ and those that lose their leaves every year are called _____.
Flowering plants are divided into two groups, depending on the number of _____, or seed leaves, in the embryonic plant.
In the eudicot root, the xylem, which transports water and minerals, is _____-shaped; and the phloem, which transports organic nutrients, is located between the points of the _____.
Monocots exhibit _____ venation, and eudicots exhibit _____ venation, which may be either pinnate or palmate.
In _____, the root phloem is between arms of xylem, while in _____, the root xylem and phloem are in a ring.
In _____, the vascular bundles are scattered in the stem, while in _____, the vascular bundles are in a distinct ring.
In _____, the leaf veins form a parallel pattern, while in _____, the leaf veins form a net pattern.
In _____, the flower parts are in fours or fives and their multiples, while in _____, the flower parts are in threes and multiples of three.
_____ are located at or near the tips of stems and roots, where they increase the length of these structures-> primary growth
_____ increase the surface area of the root for absorption of water and minerals; they also help anchor the plant firmly in place.
_____ have two important functions: to protect the plant from too much sun and to conserve moisture, sometimes they even prevent form herbivores by producing a toxic substance.
In leaves, the lower epidermis of eudicots and both surfaces of monocots contain specialized cells called _____ cells.
_____ cells often form bundles just beneath the epidermis and give flexible support to immature regions of a plant body.
_____ transports sucrose and other organic compounds, including hormones, usually from the leaves to the roots.
Both xylem and phloem are considered _____ tissues because they are composed of two or more kinds of cells.
xylem, vessel elements, tracheids, pits
_____ contains two types of conducting cells: tracheids and vessel elements, which are modified sclerenchyma cells. Both types of conducting cells are hollow and nonliving, but the _____ are larger, may have perforation plates in their end walls, and are arranged to form a continuous vessel for water and mineral transport. The elongated _____, with tapered ends, form a less obvious means of transport, but water can move across the end walls and side walls because there are _____, or depressions, where the secondary wall does not form.
The conducting cells of _____ are specialized parenchyma cells called sieve-tube members arranged to form a continuous sieve tube.
Each sieve-tube member has a ____ cell, which does not have a nucleus. The _____ cell may control and maintain the life of both cells. _____ cells are also believed to be involved in the transport function of phloem.
cylinder, bundles, veins
In the roots, vascular tissue is located in the vascular _____; in the stem, it forms vascular _____; and in the leaves, it is found in leaf _____.
Because of the Casparian strip, water and minerals must pass through the cytoplasm of endodermal cells in order to enter the _____.
The _____ is a single layer of rectangular cells that forms a boundary between the cortex and the inner vascular cylinder.
The _____ strip prevents the passage of water and mineral ions between adjacent cell walls.
The _____, the first layer of cells within the vascular cylinder, has retained its capacity to divide and can start the development of branch, or lateral, roots.
single, thin, hairs
The epidermis, which forms the outer layer of the root, consists of only a _____ layer of cells. The majority of epidermal cells are _____-walled and rectangular, but in the zone of maturation, many epidermal cells have root _____.
Moving inward, next to the epidermis, large, thin-walled parenchyma cells make up the _____ of the root.
The ground tissue of a monocot root's _____, which is centrally located, is surrounded by a vascular ring composed of alternating xylem and phloem bundles.
The shoot _____ _____ is protected within the terminal bud, where leaf primordial (immature leaves) envelop it.
epidermis, pith, cortex, vascular
Protoderm gives rise to _____; ground meristem gives rise to _____ and _____; and procambium gives rise to _____ tissue, including primary xylem, primary phloem, and vascular cambium.
_____ tissues are those new tissues formed each year from primary meristems right behind the shoot apical meristem, while _____ tissues develop during the first and subsequent years of growth from lateral meristems: vascular cambium and cork cambium.
Although secondary _____ is produced each year by vascular cambium, _____ does not build up from season to season.
The buildup of secondary _____ in a woody stem results in annual rings, which tell the age of the stem.
Most eudicot leaves have two distinct regions: _____ mesophyll, containing elongated cells, and _____ mesophyll, containing irregular cells bounded by air spaces.
This important waterproof layer is found in roots and forces water to go through the endodermal cells (and not around them) before passing through to the vascular cylinder.
Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.
Having trouble? Click here for help.
We can’t access your microphone!
Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again
Reload the page to try again!Reload
Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom
Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom
It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.
Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.
For more help, see our troubleshooting page.
Your microphone is muted
For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.
Star this term
You can study starred terms together