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Keystone - Biology Unit 6 Genetics
All key terms and definitions come from the document Keystone Exams: Biology Assessment Anchors and Eligible Content with Sample Questions and Glossary, PDE 2011. Flashcard set created by Quizlet user AlyssaMinguillon.
Terms in this set (31)
A version of a gene due to a variation in the nucleotide sequence.
Any procedure or methodology that uses biological systems or living organisms to develop or modify either products or processes for specific use. This term is commonly associated with genetic engineering, which is one of many applications.
A pattern of inheritance in which the phenotypic effect of two alleles in a heterozygous genotype express each phenotype of each allele fully and equally; a phenotype which would not be expressed in any other genotypic combination.
A pattern of inheritance in which the phenotypic effect of one allele is completely expressed within a homozygous and heterozygous genotype.
The science of tests and techniques used during the investigation of crimes.
The addition (insertion mutation) or removal (deletion mutation) of one or more nucleotides that is not indivisible by three, therefore resulting in a completely different amino acid sequence than would be normal. The earlier in the sequence nucleotides are added or removed, the more altered the protein will be.
A sequence of nucleotides composing a segment of DNA that provides a blueprint for a specific hereditary trait.
The process in which a nucleotide sequence of a gene is used to make a functional product such as protein or RNA.
A type of gene recombination in which the DNA is intentionally broken and recombined using laboratory techniques.
The intentional insertion, alteration, or deletion of genes within an individual's cells and tissues for the purpose of treating a disease.
A technology that includes the process of manipulating or altering the genetic material of a cell resulting in desirable functions or outcomes that would not occur naturally.
Genetically Modified Organism
An organism whose genetic material has been altered through some genetic engineering technology or technique.
The scientific study of inheritance.
The genetic composition of an organism with reference to a single trait, a set of traits, or the entire complement of traits of an organism.
A pattern of inheritance in which two alleles, inherited from the parents, are neither dominant nor recessive. The resulting offspring have a phenotype that is a blending of the parental traits.
The process in which genetic material is passed from parents to their offspring.
More than two forms of a gene controlling the expression of a trait.
A permanent transmissible change of genetic material (e.g., chromosomal mutations and gene mutations).
The process in which sister chromatids fail to separate during and after mitosis or meiosis.
The observable expression of a genotype.
A single‐base substitution causing the replacement of a single‐base nucleotide with another nucleotide (e.g., silent mutation, in which there is no change in an amino acid; missense mutation, in which there is a different amino acid; and nonsense mutation, in which there is an insertion of a stop codon in the amino acid which stops protein synthesis).
The process in which amino acids are arranged in a linear sequence through the processes of transcription of DNA and to RNA and the translation of RNA to a polypeptide chain.
A pattern of inheritance in which the phenotypic effect of one allele is only expressed within a homozygous genotype. In a heterozygous condition with a dominant allele, it is not expressed in the phenotype.
The process of breeding organisms that results on offspring with desired genetic traits.
A trait, associated with a gene that is carried by either the male or female parent (e.g., color blindness and sickle‐cell anemia).
The process in which a strand of messenger RNA (mRNA) is synthesized by using the genetic information found on a strand DNA as a template.
The process in which the messenger RNA (mRNA) molecule on a ribosome is decoded to produce a sequence of amino acids for protein synthesis.
The process in which a segment of a chromosome breaks off and attaches to another chromosome.
A process in which a cell, cell product, or organism is copied from an original source (e.g., DNA cloning, the transfer of a DNA fragment from one organism to a self‐replicating genetic element such as a bacterial plasmid; reproductive cloning,
the transfer of genetic material from the nucleus of a donor adult cell to an egg cell that has had its nucleus removed for
the purpose of creating an embryo that can produce an exact genetic copy of the donor organism; or therapeutic
cloning, the process of taking undifferentiated embryonic cells [stem cells] for use in medical research).
A change in the structure of a chromosome (e.g., deletion, the loss of a segment of a chromosome and thus the loss of segment containing genes; duplication, when a segment of a chromosome is duplicated and thus displayed more than
once on the chromosome; inversion, when a segment of a chromosome breaks off and reattaches in reverse order; and translocation, when a segment of one chromosome breaks off and attaches to a nonhomologous chromosome).
A trait in which the phenotype is controlled by two or more genes at different loci on different chromosomes.
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