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Bartolomé de Las Casas

Dominican priest, wrote Apologetic History of the Indies (1550)

Thomas Cromwell

Henry VIII's chief minister

Louis XI

"the spider", consolidation of France, state could be formed without a great leader's plans

Catherine de Medici

Henry II's wife, mom of Charles IX and Henry III

Philip II

"King of Paper"

Michel de Montaigne

Modern essay, skepticism, wrote Of Cannibals (addressed telling stories subjectively and using "barbarous" when people were just different)

Michael Romanov

Elected as tsar by the hereditary nobility, successfully led the Muscovite territory out of their "Time of Troubles"

Gustavus Adolphus

Protestant Swedish king, military, helped in 30 Years' War

Albert of Wallenstein

Catholic Czech general, beat Christian IV, wanted to create a kingdom for himself, and so religion wasn't a reason for his fighting

Cardinal Richelieu

Chief minister for Louis XIII, wanted Hapsburgs to have less power, declared ware against Spain, wanted to take Alsace from Holy Roman Empire

Cardinal Francisco Jimenez

Archbishop of Toledo, Primate of Spain, Polygot Bible, Inquisitor-General of Spanish Inquisition

Archbishop Albert

Pope told him to find someone to sell indulgences, he chose Tetzel

Against the Murderous Thieving Hordes of Peasants


Michael Servetus

Spanish theologian and physician, denied doctrine of the trinity, circulation of blood

Lorenzo Valla

The Donation of Constantine was forgery

William Tyndale

English translation of the New Testament

John Knox

History of the Reformation in Scotland

Angela Merici

Made the Ursulines

Jean Bodin

The Six Books of the Common Wealth, "the principal mark of a sovereign majesty is essentially the right to impose laws on subjects generally without their consent."

John Milton

The Tenure of Kings and Magistrates, defended the English Revolution

Cardinal Mazarin

Chief minister of Louis XVI


Two Treatises on Civil Government (1690), natural rights contract

Thomas Hobbs

Savage state of nature

Frederick William, the Great Elector

Absolutism, Prussia

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