36 terms

The Inca

Civilazation studied in the Foundations of Society unit.
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Terms in this set (...)

Ayllu
Extended family groups
Mita
The Incan labor system
Chasquis
Highly trained runners that carried messaged across the region
Pachacuti
The Incan ruler that started the Inca Empire
Inca
The people of a great empire in South America
Cuzco
Inca capital city
Machu Picchu
Ancient city carved out of mountain
Quipu
System of knots used to keep numerical records
Quecha
Incan language
Inti
Inca sun god
Viracocha
Great creator god, belived to be pachacuti's dad
Mamakuna
"The virgins of the sun" most beautiful girls were chosen at the age of 9 to take care of the temples
Yamacuna
Men who took care of the temples
Intihuana
Stone pillar in the middle of Machu Picchu, that lines up perfectly with the cardinal points, and four mountains (gods)
Villcabamba
Lost city that Atahualpa retreated to
Panaca
Group of people that took care of the king, even when he was dead
Conquistadors
Group of Spaniards that conquered the Inca
Pizarro
Leader of the conquistadors
Huascar
Son that lost in civil war to Atahualpa
Atahualpa
Last leader of the Inca
Geographic Benefits
Costal, Natural recources (lots of stone, minerals, gold, agriculture), mountains (war), large
Geographic Dissadvantages
Mountains, rough terrain, harder to breathe, harder to grow food, harder to transport goods/move/connect.
How did the Inca overcome their geographic dissadvantages?
To over come the rough terrain, they built bridges, roads, and pathways. They used agricultural terraces. They used chasquis to communicate.
Political Characteristics
- Quadrants, provinces, ayllu
- Mita
- Government controlled trade
- Every year, each village sent representative to the capital to give number of births and deaths in past year.
Economic Characteristics
- Agriculture based
- Government controlled trade
- Mita
Religious Characteristics
- Temples always nearby
- Sacrifices
- Mamakuna, Yamakuna
- Used king mummies
Social Characteristics
- Equality amoung commoners
- Goverment issued patterns indicate social class
Intellectual Characteristics
- Everyone knew what was expected
- Had schools
- Once they conquered a state, they would take ruler's children and teach them Inca culture and language in Cuzco
Artistic Characteristics
- Architechture (Macchu Picchu)
- Jewelry
- Plays
- Poetry accompanied by music
Machu Picchu Military Purposes:
-Skeletons connected to war
- High point location
- Mountain protection
- symbol of Inca power
Machu Picchu Religious Purposes:
- Surrounded by holy river
- Temples
- Shrines
- Intiwhattana
- Near sun and mountain gods
- Religious mummies found
Machu Picchu as Court of Pachacuti:
- P. started the empire
- P. was a renowned builder
- Similar style to other P. temples
- Ancient records refer to it as P.'s city
- Skeletons of royal entourage found
How were the Incas able to rise to power and create/maintain a successful empire? (See notes to remember all details)
- Mastered the geograpy
- Built centralized political/social system to unite people
- Integrated people into their culture
What contributed to the downfall of the Inca?
- Couldn't expand into the Amazon
- People started to revolt
- Became hard to communicate
- Smallpox
- 5 year civil war
- Conquistadors
How were a small band of Spanish able to defeat the powerful Inca Empire?
Empire was already weakened, so the spanish took advantage of that.
How did Atahualpa contribute to the Inca's demise?
1. Atahualpa knew Spanish were coming, but underestimated their power
2. He walked into an ambush...for no apparent reason