-Improvisatory works (toccata, fantasies, or preludes)
-Fugal or Imitative pieces (rivercares, fantasias, fancys, capriccios, fugues)
-Pieces with contrasting sections, often in imitative counterpoint (canzonas, sonatas)
-Settings of existing melodies (e.g. organ verse, chorale prelude)
-Variations of a melody (variations, partitas) or bass lines (partitas, chaconnes, passacaglias)
-He learned organ, harpsichord, and counterpoint in Germany
-Spent 4 years in Italy he met many major Italian composers and assimilated the italian style
-He matured as a composer in England
-Traveled more than Vivaldi, Rameau, and Bach
-He created an eclectic style using elements of German, French, Italian, and English music
-Composed the Messiah
-Music reflects a mixture of styles, french overture, italian recitatives and da capo arias, Germanic choral fugues, english choral anthem style
-Composed Water Music, 3 suites for winds and strings
-Composed Music for the Royal Fireworks,
Music for melody instruments and keyboard:
-much music was composed for melody instruments and basso continuo
-In music in which the keyboard part is written out, the keyboard part tends to dominate
Music for string ensembles without keyboard:
-Ensembles for 2-5 string performers were common
-The string quartet for 2 violins, viola, and cello became dominant
-Quartets were primarily composed for the enjoyment of the performers and their companions
Wind instruments and ensembles:
-The clarinet was invented around 1710, joining the flute, oboe, and bassoon as the principal woodwind instruments
-ensembles of wind instruments were common in france
-by midcentury, the combination of oboes, clarinets, horns, and bassoons was common
-Best remembered for his symphonies and string quartets!
- Sources of his style: the galant style, the expressiveness of the empfindsam style, baroque counterpoint, generic clichès
-Composed String Quartet in E-flat Major, Op. 3, No. 2 (The Joke): (finale) Rondo form, binary opening theme has a playful unfinished character
-Most material in the movement is derived from the idea introduced in the first 2 measures and indication of his sense of economy and novelty, he heightens drama with extensions and delay, the exaggerated drama is humorous, creating a witty effect
-He composed approximately 106 symphonies
-His symphonies generally have 4 movements:
1. a fast sonata-form movements, often with a slow intro.
2. a slow movement.
3. a minuet and trio.
4. a last finale, usually in sonata or rondo form
-All are in the same key, except slow movement in a related key
-Distinctive qualities of his later London symphonies (1791-94): more daring harmonies, intensified rhythmic drive, memorable thematic inventions
-Composed Symphony No. 92 in G Major (Oxford)
Classical: Haydn 1789
1. The first movement is in Sonata form
-slow intro makes the following allegro sound energetic
-throughout the movement, the alteration of tonally stable thematic ideas and unstable passages helps us follow the form
-The first theme group contains 3 distinct ideas
-Haydn begins the second thematic group with the opening idea and a countermelody in the winds
-the closing subject is repetitive and cadential
-Haydn modulates through several related keys
-the section features sequences, counterpoint, and motivic development
-Haydn playfully begins the recapitulation with the theme in the flute and with new counterpoint
-in the recap., the second and closing themes appear in the tonic, and the transition is extended and intensified
2. 2nd slow movement
-its in ABA form
-tends to provide a calm and gentle melody in contrast to the dramatic first movements
-the oxford has a songlike theme, a dramatic middle section in the tonic minor, and an abbreviated reprise
-Coda features woodwind instruments and uses chromatic harmonies
3. Minuet and Trio
-overall structure in ABA; each of the sections is binary
-He creates humor through unexpected harmonies, syncopations, pauses, and changes of dynamics
-in sonata form
-the first theme of the oxford finale reappears on the dominant to open the second thematic group and at the close of the exposition
-development is dominated by the first theme
-Remarkable child prodigy
-Father was a performer and composer for the archbishop of salzburg
-He toured throughout Europe 1762-1773 giving performances on the keyboard and violin-- during these travels he absorbed local musical qualities which he synthesized into his own works
-Composed minuets at age 5, symphony just before turning 9, his first oratorio at 11, and his first opera at 12
-Spent 8 years (1774-1781) in Salzburg he had an position with the archbishop of Salzburg which he was unhappy with
-Spent his last 10 years in Vienna as a freelance musician (composed, taught piano and composition, performed)
2. INSTRUMENTAL MUSIC
-Music for piano: composed sonatas, fantasias, variations, concertos, rondos, and piano duets
Sonata in F Major, K. 332
Piano Concerto in A Major, K. 488 (1786)
(3 solo sections resemble the exposition, development, and recapitulation of a sonata form
-The orchestral transition material serves as a strong contrast to the lyrical themes)
-2nd movement of a Mozart concerto resembles a lyrical aria; key is often in the subdominant and sometimes in the dominant or relative minor
-Final movement is USUALLY a rondo or sonata-rondo based on themes of a popular character
-Composed serenades & divertimentos for garden parties and outdoor performances (altho background music, he gave them serious treatment)
EX: Eine kleine Nachtmusik- best known serenade and can be played by a string quintet or a string orchestra
-Symphonies: his final 6 in vienna are considered masterpieces
-The finale to the Jupiter symphony is a contrapuntal masterpiece, in which the coda links 5 themes together in a passage of ars combinatoria (the art of musical combination and permutation)
-Composed the Operas Don Giovanni and the Magic Flute
Start of Romantic:
A. Around 1803 he began to compose in a new style, due in part to patrons and publishers
B. He composed with deliberation
-his output is significantly less than mozart/haydn
-he jotted down ideas in notebook- this allows us to follow the progress of his ideas
C. He realized he was going deaf in 1802
-considered suicide but resolved to work for art
-he appeared less often in public but continued to compose
D. Many of his compositions seemed to reflect the struggle of his life
-themes can be seen as characters in a drama
-Instrumental music was no longer just an entertainment or diversion
E. Music of this period builds on the models of Haydn/Mozart
-traditions can be seen in genres, forms, melodic types, phrasing, and texture
-he expanded the forms to unprecedented lengths
-despite the expansions, he is economical in his material
F. COMPOSED Symphony No. 3 in E-flat Major; The Eroica Symphony (1803-04)
G. Dramatic and Vocal Works
1. His only opera, Fidelio is based on a rescue plot.
-the opera glorifies heroism and the humanitarian ideas of the revolution.
2. He also composed other dramatic music, including incidental music for the play Egmont.
H. Chamber Music
1. Major works include:
-2 violin sonatas, including Op. 47 (Kreutzer)
-The archduke piano trio Op. 97
-5 String Quartets
2. He continued to test the technical ability of amateurs.
1. the concertos of his middle period are on a grander scale than earlier works.
2. He expanded the dimensions and expressive range in the Piano Concerto No. 5 E-flat Major (the emperor) and in the Violin Concerto in D Major.
3. The soloist opens Piano Concerto No. 5 with a cadenza
J. Other Symphonies
1. Symphony No. 5 (1807-08)
-The work, moving from C minor to C major, symbolizes a struggle for victory.
-The first movement is dominated by the famous four-note motive.
-The motive is heard in all 4 movements.
-The symphony has a transition between the scherzo and the final movement.
-The transition begins softly with the timpani playing the motive.
-The entrance of the full orchestra at the beginning of the final movement includes the trombones on a C-major chord.
-The finale also adds bassoon and piccolo.
2. Symphony No. 6 (The Pastoral 1808)
-Premiered on the same program as No. 5
-Each movement has a title describing life in the country.
-An extra movement (Storm) precedes the finale.
-The woodwinds imitate bird calls in the coda of the second movement.
A. In his later years he went further into isolation.
1. His deafness became increasingly profound.
2. He became suspicious of friends.
3. He also suffered from family problems, ill health, and fear of poverty.
4. Vienna's post-war depression made it difficult to produce large-scale works.
5. He abandoned the heroic style.
B. Characteristics of his late style:
1. His late quartets were published in score, suggesting that they were to be studied as well as played.
2. The mood became more introspective, and the musical language was more concentrated.
3. Classical forms remained, but were subject to great upheaval.
4. Variation structures focused on the substance of a theme.
5. He emphasized continuity.
-He blurred division between phrases.
-Successive movements are often played without pause.
6. He explored unusual new sonorities in his late works.
7. With these works, he established that a performer must seek out the composer's vision.
8. Works featuring imitative counterpoint, especially fugues, are common.
-Fugal finales include: Symphony No. 9
9. He often altered the number and arrangement of movements.
C. Composed String Quartet in C-sharp Minor, Op. 131.
1. He believed that this was his greatest quartet.
2. Typical of his late works, this quartet appeals primarily to the connoisseur.
3. The work has 7 movements played without breaks.
4. The finale refers to the fugue subject of the 1st movement.
5. First Movement:
-Slow tempo and fugal form are unusual for a first movement.
-Theme begins with a four note motive ending with a sforzando.
-Exposition has 4 statements of the theme.
-The answer form of the theme is on the subdominant.
-The movement is extremely emotional and uses unusual harmonies.
6. Second Movement:
-The structure is sonata-rondo form, a form typical of final movements.
-The mood is more comic than dramatic.
D. The late period include 2 major public works.
1. Missa Solemnis
-Originally intended as a mass for the elevation of archduke Rudolph to archbishop, but the work became too long and elaborate for liturgical use.
-The influence of Handel can be seen in the choral writing, but the 5 movements are unified into a symphonic structure.
-The work functions as a concert piece.
2. Symphony No. 9
-This work was first performed in May 1824.
-Beethoven did not hear the applause after the scherzo movement.
-The first 3 movements, lasting more than an hour, are on a grand scale.
-The most striking innovation of the symphony is the use of voices in the finale, which uses Schiller's poem Ode to Joy.
-The final movement follows an unorthodox format.
1. He was the grandson of Moses Mendelssohn, the leading Jewish philosopher of the German Enlightenment.
2. His father converted the children to christianity.
3. He was a remarkable child prodigy, whose youthful productivity rivals that of Mozart.
4. He founded the Leipzig Conservatory in 1843.
B. He blended characteristics of Bach, Handel, Mozart, and Beethoven with those of his contemporaries
1. Contrapuntal activity and formal clarity.
2. Romantic expression
3. Beautiful melodies
4. Interesting and often unpredictable melodies
5. Fluent technique was emphasized over bravura display
C. His larger piano works include 3 sonatas, variations, and fantasias.
D. The Seven Character pieces (1827) introduced the term and helped define the genre.
E. His works have a more classic sound than those of Berlioz.
1. He was trained in classic forms in his youth, composing 13 string symphonies with classical forms and procedures.
2. His mature symphonies blend classic models with elements of romanticism.
1. The 5 symphonies are numbered by date of publication
2. Symphony No. 5 (reform., 1830) concludes with a movement based on Luther's chorale Ein' Feste Burg
3. Symphony No. 2 titled Lobgesang (Song of Praise, 1840) includes solo voices, chorus, and organ.
4. Symphony No. 3 (Scottish, 1842) was based on impressions from a trip to the british isles.
5. Symphony No. 4 (Italian, 1833) is based on impressions from a trip to Italy.
-This work projects the energy of a sunny, vibrant south.
-The slow movement suggests a procession of chanting pilgrims.
-The finale presents a spirited saltarello, a lively italian dance.
6. The first movement of the Italian Symphony has 3 primary themes.
-The symphony opens with a theme inspired by italian opera.
-The second theme is similar in character to the first.
-A new theme appears in the development.
-All 3 themes are recalled in the recapitulation, creating a classical sense of unity.
1. Several overtures painted musical landscapes.
2. Midsummer Night's Dream is inspired by Shakespeare's comedy.
-This masterwork was composed when he was 17.
-It became the standard for all subsequent overtures.
-The perpetual motion of the opening suggests dancing fairies.
-A clear sonata form underlies an imaginative use of musical figuration and orchestral color.
-The overture projects various images, ranging from fairy dust to the braying of a donkey.
-He would later write additional music for the play, including the famous wedding march.
1. He emphasized musical content rather than empty virtuosity.
2. Of the 4 piano concertos, 2 were published in his lifetime No. 1 in G minor (1831) and No. 2 in D minor.
3. Violin Concerto in E minor was written for his friend, violinist Ferdinand David.
4. The violin concerto has 3 movements played w/out pause.
-A transition lead from the first movement to the lyrical andante.
-The transition to the finale alludes to the opening theme of the first movement.
5. The first movement has several formal innovations.
-it begins with the violin solo instead of an orchestral statement, creating a sonata form structure.
-The cadenza is placed before the recapitulation rather than before the closing ritornello.
6. The ABA' middle movement is a romance for violin and orchestra.
7. The last movement is a sonata rondo form: ABACAB'A
-the lightness suggests the character of a scherzo
-the violin and orchestra share equally in the finale
-the leading melodies move seamlessly between the soloist and orchestra
-the initial return of A is in G major rather than tonic
-a new lyric theme is introduced in C minor
-at the reprise of A in the tonic, the C theme becomes a countermelody
-the coda is based on motives from B
1. He was born near Warsaw in Poland.
2. An established performer, he moved to paris in 1831.
3. He met the leading composers in paris, including Liszt.
4. He died from tuberculous in 1849.
B. He composed almost exclusively for piano including, around 200 piano pieces, 6 works for piano and orchestra, around 20 songs, four chamber works.
C. His idiomatic writing opened new possibilities for piano that appealed to both amateurs and connoisseurs.
D. He composed études, each addressing a specific skill, and were the first with significant artistic content and can be called concert études.
E. He composed 24 preludes with rich chromatic harmonies and varied textures, they were all in major and minor keys, these brief mood pieces illustrate an astounding inventiveness of figuration.
1. He composed waltzes, mazurkas, and polonaises for his students.
2. The dances are idiomatic for the piano and are often only moderately difficult.
3. Composed Mazurka in B-flat Major, Op. 7 No. 1 (1832)
-This work exemplifies the typical meter and rhythmic gesture of the mazurka.
-The accompaniment is simple and the melody has 4 measure phrases.
1. He composed 18 nocturnes.
2. The genre, a type of song with no words, is similar to the nocturne for voices and is indebted to the embellished singing style of Italian opera.
3. Composed Nocturne in D-flat Major, Op. 27 No. 2 (1835)
-This work features an angry melody with embellishments.
-The accompaniment spans 2 octaves.
-The form is songlike and can be seen as modified strophic with 3 verses AB trans A'B' trans A'' B'' trans coda.
-The unpredictable A theme unfolds thru constant variation
-The B theme is in a contrasting key, but is more regular than A.
-Each Transition is different.
-The coda features parallel dim7 chords but remains firmly in D-flat.
H. Ballades and scherzos
1. They are longer and more demanding than his other one-movement works.
2. Ballades: first to use this name for an instrumental work, he infused them with fresh turns in harmony and form.
3. Scherzo: his are not playful but serious and passionate, they are also tricky and quirky, particularly in their rhythm and thematic material.
I. His Achievement:
1. Incorporation of polish nationalistic traits.
2. Concentration on piano music only.
3. mix of virtuosity with elegant lyricism.
4. Originality in melody, harmony, and pianism.
5. Appeal to amateurs and connoisseurs.
6. Creation of an idiomatic piano sound.
-He was an outstanding piano virtuoso and important composer.
A. Early Career:
1. He was a child prodigy in Hungary and Vienna.
2. He came to Paris with his family in 1823, at the age of 12.
3. He exploited new technological advances on the piano and developed a new virtuoso style.
4. He gave over 1,000 concerts between 1839-47.
-He toured Europe, Turkey, and Russia
-He was the first pianist to give solo concerts in large halls, which he termed recitals.
-He was the first to play a range of music from bach to his contemporaries, and first to play from memory.
-He was often received as a rock star.
1.Paganini was his most important influence, he raised violin virtuosity to new heights, he vowed to do the same for piano.
2. His hungarian roots can be heard in works based on hungarian melodies and rhythms, such as the hungarian rhapsodies for piano.
1. He has 3 concert ètudes.
2. They illustrate his use of chromatic harmony.
1. As a performer, he established most of the traditions of the modern recital, developed new techniques, and provided a model for other performers.
2. As a composer, he explored new formal and harmonic possibilities while offering deep felt music on a wide variety of subjects.
A. Changes were introduced to wind instruments
-Flutes, oboes, clarinets, and bassoons acquired elaborate systems of keys, enabling them to play faster and better in tune.
-The piccolo, english horn, bass clarinet, and contrabassoon were used to occasionally.
-Horns and trumpets added valves, enabling them to reach chromatic notes.
-Tubas began to appear in orchestras in the 1830s.
B. Orchestral music became more colorful.
-Winds and brass became equal to the strings.
-The bass drum, triangle, and other percussion instruments were used in some works.
-The new, fully chromatic pedal harp was also added.
C. other than harp players, professional players were usually men.
1. Born in Southeastern France, he taught himself harmony and began composing in his teens.
2. He played flute and guitar, but NOT piano.
3. He won the Prix de Rome in 1830 and worked in that city for many years.
-This is where he became infatuated with Harriet Smithson and made her the subject of Symphonie Fantastique.
-they later married then divorced.
4. One of the most literary composers, he often based his compositions on great works of literature.
5. He turned to musical criticism as his chief profession.
6. He produced his own concerts and later started a career of conducting.
B. Composed Symphonie Fantastique
C. Composed Harold en Italie 1832
1. Draws its title from Lord Byron's poem Childe Harold.
2. The substance is drawn from his recollections of Italy.
3. The work features a solo viola, which is not as prominent as is in a concerto.
4. Paganini commissioned the work but refused to play it.
5. A recurring theme in the viola appears in each movement and is combined contrapuntally with other themes.
6. In the final movement, the earlier themes are summed up, but the mood remains passive, like Byron's antihero
D. Later Symphonies
1. Romeo et Juliette (1839 revised ca. 1847) is a dramatic symphony with a chorus and soloists.
2. The Grand Symphonie funèbre et triomphale (Grand Funeral and Triumphant Symphony), for military band with optional strings and chorus, is one of the earliest band masterpieces.
E. His Achievements:
1. Symphonie Fantastique and other works made him the leader of the radicals in the romantic era.
2. All subsequent programmatic composers were indebted to him.
3. He enriched orchestral music with new harmonies, color, expression, and form.
4. The idèe fixe inspired other cyclical symphonies in the century.
5. His orchestration initiated in which instrumental color rivaled harmony and melody as expressive tools for composers.
6. He wrote the first book on orchestration.
-He basically started the french romantic movement (but beethoven lead the german and overall romantic era)
Romantic: Berlioz, 1830
A. The first 5 movement symphony, inspired by his infatuation with smithson, deals with passions aroused by a woman.
B. Berlioz employs a recurring melody, which he calls idèe fixe.
1. The theme appears in each movement representing the hero's love.
2. The theme is transformed to suit the mood and situation of the story.
3. It is heard as the extended first theme of the first movement.
C. Berlioz submitted the work "Episode in the life of the artist" and gave it a program.
1. The program functions as the words of a drama that are read, not spoken.
2. The text of the program is in a passionate prose that reveals several literary influences.
D. The first movement is entitled "Dreams and Passions"
1. A slow intro precedes an allegro that resembles sonata form.
2. The developmental section is interrupted by the idèe fixe in the dominant.
E. The second movement, a waltz instead of a minuet, reenacts the ballroom scene (where he sees his beloved on the dance floor).
F. The slow third movement is a pastoral with dialogues between piping shepherds.
G. The fourth movement, a macabre tour de force, the hero dreams of his execution.
H. The fifth movement depicts a witches sabbath.
1. The colorful opening suggests the convergence of ghosts, wizards, and witches.
2. A distorted idèe fixe in the clarinets represents the debauched beloved.
3. The E-flat clarinet mockingly plays the entire idèe fixe.
4. Bells sound with fragments of the round dance.
5. 3 phrases of "Dies irae" are played; each phrase is given 3 times.
6. The round dance begins as a fugue.
7. The round dance and the "Dies irae" are played together.
I. Originality of this piece:
1. Using a symphony as a narrative
2. Unifying a work through a recurring theme and thematic transformation
3. Use of an astonishing array of instrumental colors
1. Muted strings suggest dreaming
2. Harps are heard at the ball
3. The English Horn and the offstage Oboe imitates shepherds pipes.
4. A snare drum and cymbals are heard in the march to the scaffold
5. Tubular bells represent church bells
6. The violins play with the wood of their bows during the witches' dance.