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Industrial Revolution

began in Britain by 1750. Less dramatic than French revolution; new advancements in technology and opportunities that improve countries; esp. coal & steam; creation of wealthy industrial middle class & huge proletariat class//Continent with Belgium, German and France was slower to industrialize b/c lack of good roads, war interruption, lack of technical knowledge//Britain: cotton leads, Continent: iron & coal lead

agricultural revolution

changes in methods of farming that led to significant increase in food production; more people could afford food at lower prices with less labor; rapid population growth ensured more laborers; new emerging British industries; rural cottage industries provided potential labor for industrial enterprises

cotton industry

a system of textile manufacturing; spinners and weavers often worked at home; used raw materials supplied by capitalist entrepreneurs


man-made waterways that usually connected existing lakes, rivers, or oceans; construction in the 1700's dropped transportation prices

Richard Arkwright

invented the water frame which was a spinning machine powered by water or horse

James Hargreaves

made the 1768 spinning jenny that enabled spinners to produce yarn in mass quantities and ended shortage of yarn

Samuel Crompton

made the mule that combined the aspects of the spinning jenny and the water. It further increased yarn production.

hand-loom weavers

old-school weaving

cottage system

textile industries


the fuel of the industrial revolution


the purified form of coal that produced little or no smoke. It made high quality iron or steel.

James Watt

This Scottish inventor made the 1782 rotary engine that improved the Newcomen engine. It could pump 3 times more water. It turned a shaft that allowed it to "drive" machinery; success led to a need for more coal and an expansion in coal production which in turn furthered the development of the iron industry//Britain used mostly for textiles while Continent used for mining

Henry Cort

devised the puddling method in the 1780s


involved new methods of smelting iron. It was the process where coke was used to burn away impurities in pig iron to make an iron of high quality; also called "Cort process"; the growing supply of less costly metal encouraged use of machinery esp transportation

Richard Trevithick

pioneered the first steam-powered locomotive on a South Wales industrial rail-line

George Stephenson

This man and his son built locomotives and opened the first public locomotive, Rocket, in 1832


"most important single factor in promoting European economic progress in the 1830's-1840's". Used often in mining operations. British suremacy in engineering was b/c the skills aquired from building these. They encouraged investorsto invest in joint-stock b/c huge $$$ demands to build them; larger markets


the lasting symbol of the Industrial Revolution, it housed the machinery of production and its workers came to work there.

factory discipline

workers were forced to work regular hours in shifts, so machines were running steadily; values enforced by new evangelical churches esp. Methodism

Great Exhibition

1851; World's 1st industrial fair which was held in London, in Crystal Palace. It had over 100,000 exhibits to show Britain's wealth

Crystal Palace

enormous structure made entirely of glass and iron, it was a tribute to British engineering skills


used by Continent governments to further industrialization. It was a tax imposed on imported goods that raised revenue. It discouraged imports, to encourage domestic industries. It furthered industrialization and was used by French when cheap British goods flooded in

joint-stock investment banks

mobilized the savings of small and large investors; created by selling shares of stock to investors; constituted the difference between Britain and continental industrialization; accepted savings of many depositors and therefore made a $$$ source to be used to invest on railroads, mining, and heavy industry. Shareholders had limited liability. Provided the large amts of capital for advanced machines.

Credit Mobilier

established in the 1850's, it was a joint-stock investment bank in France; helped provide $$$ for machines


established in the 1850's; it was a joint-stock investment bank in Austria; helped provide $$$ for machines

American system

reduced costs, revolutionized production by saving labor, copied most of Britains advancements//railroads greatly enhance; expanding excess farming labor & unskilled workers supplies factory labor


it was a new invention in transportation and was used extensively on the Mississppi and Missouri rivers

India's cotton cloth production

one of the greatest exporters of cotton through hand labor; when much of India under BEIC, they were encouraged to export

Ireland and the potato

This country had this crop as a basic staple for its peasants, enablin them to survive ans multiply. Half of the population depended on the supply of it.

Great Famine

1845-51; It decimated the Irish population. Due to a fungus that struck potato crop in 1845 summer; caused the country to be the only declining population & many to emigrate into America


These were the residental areas surrounding the city; many middle-class families began moving into them to avoid problems in rapidly growing cities

Britain's Poor Law Commission

This group did investigation on social standards and produced detailed reports about it

Edwin Chadwick

1800-1890; He was one of the greatest urban reformers. He had a background in law and was obsessed with eliminating poverty of metro areas. He became a civil servant, and appointed to many government investigative commissions. He was the secretary of the Poor Law Commission; went through searches for facts about the living conditions of the working middle class and wrote Report on the Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain; advocated a system of modern sanitary reforms (efficient sewers and piped water) so eventually Britain's first Public Health Act created a National Board of Health

Public Health Act

created the National Board of Public Health because of Chadwick's reports


Early 1830s & late 1840 deadly disease that quickly spread through filthy condition


middle-class that benefited most from the revolution; produced by the rise of industrial capitalism

old elites

raised capital, determined markets, set objectives, organized, trained others; had to constantly expand so fear of bankruptcy was constant

new elites

groups that established many of the factories; members if dussebtubg religious minorities were prominent; aristocrats also became them esp in Britain

working class

"industrial-middle" class that resulted from the rise of industrial capitalism; made of entrepreneurs, factory constructors, machine buyers, market researchers; came from a mercantile background

child labor

This type of labor was exploited more than ever;they were often beaten, and worked under harsh and cruel conditions; declined under the Factory Act of 1833

domestic servants

They are people who work or live in an employer's household; Differing from serves and peasants, they receive wages as well as having freedom to leave the job.

Combination Acts

1799 & 1800: outlawed the association of workers, but didn't prevent trade unions

trade unions

an association of workers in the same trade that formed to to help members secure better wages, benefits, and working conditions

Robert Owen

a well known cotton magnate and social reformer who was a leader in the effort of union movements to focus on the creation of national unions. He believed in the creation of voluntary associations and demonstrated to others the benefits of cooperative living. Under him, plans for a Grand National Consolidated Trades Union emerged (1834)

Grand National Consolidated Trades Union

a national federation of trade unions in 1834 that coordinated a strike against an 8 hour work day

Almalgamated Society of Engineers

Formed in 1850, most successful of the individual trade unions and gave generous unemployment benefits


Skilled craftspeople in the Midlands and northern England that attacked the machines that they believed threatened their livelihoods(1812); failed to stop the industrial mechanization


British workers attempting to improve their conditions; the first "important political movement of working men organized during the 19th century."; tried to achieve political democracy; created a People's Charter in 1838; wanted universal male suffrage, Parliament members to be paid, annual sessions of Parliament; never posed a real threat; aroused and organized millions of working-class men and women; gave them a sense of working-class consciousness

London Workingmen's Association

drew up the People's Charter in 1838

Factory Act of 1833

Passed bet 1802-1819; limited labor for children between ages of 9-16 to 12 hrs a day; said that children received instruction in reading and arithmetic during working hours; these laws only applied to cotton mills, not factories or mines where it was very bad; not enforced, no inspections

Ten Hours Act

1847: reduced the workday for children from 13-18 hours -10 hours

Coal Mines Act

1842: eliminated the employment of boys under 10 and women in mines

Friedrich List

1814: German; wrote National System of Political Economy to promote a rapid industrialization program ro ensure nation's strengh through protective tariffs; if countries folow Brit policy of free trade, then Brit's cheaper goods would overwhelm and destroy small industries before they could grow. Germany could not compete with Britain without protective tariffs.

William Wordsworth

A poet who was among many reform-minded individuals against the Industrial Revolution

US Labor Force

Made large use of unskilled labor namely from children, women, and immigrants


had least restrictions in Britain, while Continental ones tended to adhere to traditional business attitudes(dislike of competition, hugh regard for family security, less risking, thrifty);

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