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Chapter 20 Vocabulary

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Industrial Revolution
began in Britain by 1750. Less dramatic than French revolution; new advancements in technology and opportunities that improve countries; esp. coal & steam; creation of wealthy industrial middle class & huge proletariat class//Continent with Belgium, German and France was slower to industrialize b/c lack of good roads, war interruption, lack of technical knowledge//Britain: cotton leads, Continent: iron & coal lead
agricultural revolution
changes in methods of farming that led to significant increase in food production; more people could afford food at lower prices with less labor; rapid population growth ensured more laborers; new emerging British industries; rural cottage industries provided potential labor for industrial enterprises
cotton industry
a system of textile manufacturing; spinners and weavers often worked at home; used raw materials supplied by capitalist entrepreneurs
canals
man-made waterways that usually connected existing lakes, rivers, or oceans; construction in the 1700's dropped transportation prices
Richard Arkwright
invented the water frame which was a spinning machine powered by water or horse
James Hargreaves
made the 1768 spinning jenny that enabled spinners to produce yarn in mass quantities and ended shortage of yarn
Samuel Crompton
made the mule that combined the aspects of the spinning jenny and the water. It further increased yarn production.
hand-loom weavers
old-school weaving
cottage system
textile industries
coal
the fuel of the industrial revolution
coke
the purified form of coal that produced little or no smoke. It made high quality iron or steel.
James Watt
This Scottish inventor made the 1782 rotary engine that improved the Newcomen engine. It could pump 3 times more water. It turned a shaft that allowed it to "drive" machinery; success led to a need for more coal and an expansion in coal production which in turn furthered the development of the iron industry//Britain used mostly for textiles while Continent used for mining
Henry Cort
devised the puddling method in the 1780s
puddling
involved new methods of smelting iron. It was the process where coke was used to burn away impurities in pig iron to make an iron of high quality; also called "Cort process"; the growing supply of less costly metal encouraged use of machinery esp transportation
Richard Trevithick
pioneered the first steam-powered locomotive on a South Wales industrial rail-line
George Stephenson
This man and his son built locomotives and opened the first public locomotive, Rocket, in 1832
railroads
"most important single factor in promoting European economic progress in the 1830's-1840's". Used often in mining operations. British suremacy in engineering was b/c the skills aquired from building these. They encouraged investorsto invest in joint-stock b/c huge $$$ demands to build them; larger markets
factory
the lasting symbol of the Industrial Revolution, it housed the machinery of production and its workers came to work there.
factory discipline
workers were forced to work regular hours in shifts, so machines were running steadily; values enforced by new evangelical churches esp. Methodism
Great Exhibition
1851; World's 1st industrial fair which was held in London, in Crystal Palace. It had over 100,000 exhibits to show Britain's wealth
Crystal Palace
enormous structure made entirely of glass and iron, it was a tribute to British engineering skills
tariffs
used by Continent governments to further industrialization. It was a tax imposed on imported goods that raised revenue. It discouraged imports, to encourage domestic industries. It furthered industrialization and was used by French when cheap British goods flooded in
joint-stock investment banks
mobilized the savings of small and large investors; created by selling shares of stock to investors; constituted the difference between Britain and continental industrialization; accepted savings of many depositors and therefore made a $$$ source to be used to invest on railroads, mining, and heavy industry. Shareholders had limited liability. Provided the large amts of capital for advanced machines.
Credit Mobilier
established in the 1850's, it was a joint-stock investment bank in France; helped provide $$$ for machines
Kreditanstalt
established in the 1850's; it was a joint-stock investment bank in Austria; helped provide $$$ for machines
American system
reduced costs, revolutionized production by saving labor, copied most of Britains advancements//railroads greatly enhance; expanding excess farming labor & unskilled workers supplies factory labor
steamboats
it was a new invention in transportation and was used extensively on the Mississppi and Missouri rivers
India's cotton cloth production
one of the greatest exporters of cotton through hand labor; when much of India under BEIC, they were encouraged to export
Ireland and the potato
This country had this crop as a basic staple for its peasants, enablin them to survive ans multiply. Half of the population depended on the supply of it.
Great Famine
1845-51; It decimated the Irish population. Due to a fungus that struck potato crop in 1845 summer; caused the country to be the only declining population & many to emigrate into America
suburbs
These were the residental areas surrounding the city; many middle-class families began moving into them to avoid problems in rapidly growing cities
Britain's Poor Law Commission
This group did investigation on social standards and produced detailed reports about it
Edwin Chadwick
1800-1890; He was one of the greatest urban reformers. He had a background in law and was obsessed with eliminating poverty of metro areas. He became a civil servant, and appointed to many government investigative commissions. He was the secretary of the Poor Law Commission; went through searches for facts about the living conditions of the working middle class and wrote Report on the Condition of the Labouring Population of Great Britain; advocated a system of modern sanitary reforms (efficient sewers and piped water) so eventually Britain's first Public Health Act created a National Board of Health
Public Health Act
created the National Board of Public Health because of Chadwick's reports
cholera
Early 1830s & late 1840 deadly disease that quickly spread through filthy condition
bourgeois
middle-class that benefited most from the revolution; produced by the rise of industrial capitalism
old elites
raised capital, determined markets, set objectives, organized, trained others; had to constantly expand so fear of bankruptcy was constant
new elites
groups that established many of the factories; members if dussebtubg religious minorities were prominent; aristocrats also became them esp in Britain
working class
"industrial-middle" class that resulted from the rise of industrial capitalism; made of entrepreneurs, factory constructors, machine buyers, market researchers; came from a mercantile background
child labor
This type of labor was exploited more than ever;they were often beaten, and worked under harsh and cruel conditions; declined under the Factory Act of 1833
domestic servants
They are people who work or live in an employer's household; Differing from serves and peasants, they receive wages as well as having freedom to leave the job.
Combination Acts
1799 & 1800: outlawed the association of workers, but didn't prevent trade unions
trade unions
an association of workers in the same trade that formed to to help members secure better wages, benefits, and working conditions
Robert Owen
a well known cotton magnate and social reformer who was a leader in the effort of union movements to focus on the creation of national unions. He believed in the creation of voluntary associations and demonstrated to others the benefits of cooperative living. Under him, plans for a Grand National Consolidated Trades Union emerged (1834)
Grand National Consolidated Trades Union
a national federation of trade unions in 1834 that coordinated a strike against an 8 hour work day
Almalgamated Society of Engineers
Formed in 1850, most successful of the individual trade unions and gave generous unemployment benefits
Luddites
Skilled craftspeople in the Midlands and northern England that attacked the machines that they believed threatened their livelihoods(1812); failed to stop the industrial mechanization
Chartism
British workers attempting to improve their conditions; the first "important political movement of working men organized during the 19th century."; tried to achieve political democracy; created a People's Charter in 1838; wanted universal male suffrage, Parliament members to be paid, annual sessions of Parliament; never posed a real threat; aroused and organized millions of working-class men and women; gave them a sense of working-class consciousness
London Workingmen's Association
drew up the People's Charter in 1838
Factory Act of 1833
Passed bet 1802-1819; limited labor for children between ages of 9-16 to 12 hrs a day; said that children received instruction in reading and arithmetic during working hours; these laws only applied to cotton mills, not factories or mines where it was very bad; not enforced, no inspections
Ten Hours Act
1847: reduced the workday for children from 13-18 hours -10 hours
Coal Mines Act
1842: eliminated the employment of boys under 10 and women in mines
Friedrich List
1814: German; wrote National System of Political Economy to promote a rapid industrialization program ro ensure nation's strengh through protective tariffs; if countries folow Brit policy of free trade, then Brit's cheaper goods would overwhelm and destroy small industries before they could grow. Germany could not compete with Britain without protective tariffs.
William Wordsworth
A poet who was among many reform-minded individuals against the Industrial Revolution
US Labor Force
Made large use of unskilled labor namely from children, women, and immigrants
entrepreneurs
had least restrictions in Britain, while Continental ones tended to adhere to traditional business attitudes(dislike of competition, hugh regard for family security, less risking, thrifty);