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35 terms

Criminology test 1

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Criminology
The scientific study of crime and criminal behavior.
-is also an interdisciplinary science, it involves an interplay of several other disciplines such as sociology, law psychology, economics, political science.
Classical Criminology
the theoretical perspective suggesting that (1) people have free will to choose criminal or conventional behaviors (2) people choose to commit crime for reason of greed or personal need (3) crime can be controlled only by the fear of criminal sanctions.
Positivism
The Branch of of social science that uses the scientific method of the natural sciences and suggests that human behavior is a product of social biological, psychological, or economic forces
Socialization
Process of human development and enculturation. Socialization is influenced by key social processes and institutions
Deviance
is any behavior that violates social norms
Crime
An, act deemed socially harmful or dangerous, that is specifically defined prohibited, and punished under criminal law
Consensus view
The belief that the majority of citizens is a society share common values and agree on what behaviors should be defined criminal
criminal law
The written code that defines crimes and their punishments
conflict view
The belief that criminal behavior is defined by those in a position of power to protect and advance their own self-interest
Felony
A serious offenses that carries a penalty of imprisonment, usually for one year or more, and may entail loss of political rights
Misdemeanor
A minor crime usually punished by a short jail term and/or fine
Crime is relative
because criminal laws have a changing character and differs across societies
Victimology
the study of the victim's role in criminal events
cycle of violence
victims of crime, especially victims of childhood abuse, are more likely to commit crimes themselves
victim precipitation theory
the view that victims may initiate, either actively or passively, the confrontation that leads to their victimization
Lifestyle theories
views on how people become crime victims because of lifestyles that increase their exposure to criminal offenders
Deviant place theory
The view that victimization is primarily a function of where people live
Routine activities theory
the view that victimization results from the interaction of three everyday factors: the availability of suitable targets, the absence of capable guardians, and the presence of motivated offenders
Rational choice
The view that crime is a function of a decision-making process in which the potential offender weighs the potential costs and benefits of an illegal act.
choice theory
individual is a rational actor who weighs the cost and benefits and decides whether or not commit the action - everyone is a free individual and has the choice (indeterminism)
offender-specific
the idea that offenders evaluate their skills, motives, needs and fears before deciding to commit crime.
Situational crime prevention
A method of crime prevention that seeks to eliminate or reduce particular crimes in specific settings.
Defensible space
The principle that crime can be prevented or displaced by modifying the physical environment to reduce the opportunity that individuals have to commit crime.
General deterrence
a crime control policy that depends on the fear of criminal penalties, convincing the potential law violator that the pains associated with crime outweighs its benefits.
specific deterrence
the view that criminal sanctions should be so powerful that offenders will never repeat their criminal acts.
incarceration
confinement to jail or prison
recidivism
repeated criminal behavior
Incapacitation effect
the idea that keeping offenders in confinement will eliminate the risk of their committing further offenses.
Surveys
Questionnaires and interviews that ask people directly about their experiences, attitudes, or opinions.
uniform crime report
large database compiled by the FBI, of crimes reported and arrests made each year throughout the United States; standardizes the number of crimes per 100,000
national crime victimization survey
the ongoing victimization study conducted jointly by the Justice Department and the US Census Bureau that surveys victims about their experiences with law violations
self report survey
A research approach that requires subjects to reveal their own participation in delinquent or criminal acts.
Victimization surveys
Surveys that attempt to measure the extent of crime by interviewing people who have suffered crime.
Chronic Offenders
Delinquents who are arrested 5 or more times before the age of 18 and who commit a disproportionate amount of all criminal offenses.
early onset
the view that repeat offenders begin their criminal careers at a very young age.