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CHAPTER 15

STUDY
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A single antibody gene can code for different related proteins, depending on the splicing that takes place post-transcriptionally
Which of the following contradicts the "one-gene, one-enzyme hypothesis"?
defective enzyme 2
Homogentisic acid would accumulate under which of the following conditions?
the enzyme that converts ornithine to citrulline
According to the table and figure above, which enzyme is defective in the strain with the arg2 mutation?
to determine the role of proteins coded for by those genes that are knocked out
Knockout mice have been genetically altered to knock out specific genes. How are these mice most often used in research?
the three-base sequence of mRNA that specifies the addition of a specific amino acid
What is a codon?
amino acids
Which of the following is not synthesized from a DNA template?
RNA is synthesized.
In the process of transcription, ________.
mRNA
What molecule serves as a link between the information-containing macromolecule, DNA, and protein synthesis?
A codon of 2 bases in length, from 4 different bases, would code for a maximum of 16 different amino acids; therefore, 2 are too few.
Which of the following observations may have resulted in the hypothesis that a codon is made up of three bases?
Only a single amino acid could change, because the reading frame is unaffected.
How might a single base substitution in the sequence of a gene affect the amino acid sequence of a protein encoded by the gene, and why?
The genetic code evolved before the different domains diverged.
All three domains (Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukarya) follow the same genetic code. Which of the following statements would most likely be accurate given that information?
More than one codon can specify the addition of the same amino acid.
What does it mean when we say the genetic code is redundant?
when the single base change results in a codon that specifies the same amino acid as the original codon
When is a single base substitution mutation least likely to be deleterious?
has become known as the central dogma.
The statement, DNA\to RNA\to Proteins, ________.
DNA base sequence; amino acid sequence.
Genotype is to ________ as phenotype is to ________
Messenger RNA is transcribed from a single gene and transfers information from the DNA in the nucleus to the cytoplasm, where protein synthesis takes place.
Once researchers identified DNA as the unit of inheritance, they asked how information was transferred from the DNA in the nucleus to the site of protein synthesis in the cytoplasm. What is the mechanism of information transfer?