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Ethics in America
Terms in this set (107)
The theory that there are no universally valid moral values applicable to all people at all times is
the word arête most closely translates as
what does the word eudaimonia translate to?
living well and doing good
notions such as "truth", "beauty", and "justice" and so forth are considered to be eternal forms by which philosopher?
To Socrates, self-interest and virtue were..
always aligned with each other as long as the subject has all the knowledge needed to truly know what is in the subject's true self-interest.
which of the following most closely approximates the three parts of the soul, according to Plato?
Emotion, reason, appetites
What is "the doctrine of the mean"
It was conceived by Aristotle and means that one should avoid extremes in behavior and action
to plato and Aristotle the ultimate source of justice is...
to the ancient Israelites, the ultimate basis of law was..
the main difference between the concept of justice in the law and in the prophets in the old testament was
in the law, justice was retributive, in the prophets it was distributive
paternalism is unavoidable in the bible's ethical system because
the ultimate basis of the law and commandment to love is based on a male deity's insistence
the prophets denounce evil in what manner?
by angrily declaring that their flock has sinned, will be punished severely by God, then forgiven-if they repent and mend their ways
When God promises Abraham that his progeny will live in the land of Israel as Abraham and his progeny worship God and follow his laws, this is known as the
covenant "binding contract that affects not only the two entities that make the contract but also the progeny"
The new testament's ethics differ from the old testament in that it
does not follow the dietary laws in the old testament, and is not limited to one's family or ethnic group
Achieving righteousness through faith and the doctrine of original sin originated with who
if propositions are either true or false, what proposition may not always be categorized as a proposition?
The moral law tradition is based on ...
-a system of morality is inherent in the universe
-human beings can understand the system of morality inherent in the universe
-human beings are capable of obeying the system of morality inherent in the universe
Locke, Hobbes, and Rousseau agreed that..
-there was an original condition of humanity called the state of nature
-civil society changed the state of nature
the only source of legitimate political authority is the consent of the governed. which philosopher believed that
the relationship between natural law and natural rights...
natural rights derive from natural law because the universal standards that govern ethics are inherent in human nature, wherever human nature comes from.
the earliest proponent of social-contract theory
According to Locke, when the social contract has been broken irreparably, the proper response is
Kant's ethical system was
deontological because it was based on the notion of a priori moral tenets that are eternal
the categorical imperative was..
kant's notion that certain actions are necessary in all circumstances
What is the statement "if I want to pass I have to study" an example of
a hypothetical imperative
Kant believed that humans should never be treated only as a means to an end because
people are rational, autonomous actors that should be treated equally
Act nonconsequentialism is the best example of the theory of (if it feels good, do it)
subjectivism (morals based on feelings)
Which philosophers could be called "utilitarian's"?`
Jeremy Bentham and John Stuart Mill
The hedonic/ felicific calculus was...
worked out by Jeremy Bentham in order to reduce moral choices to a universally applicable algorithm
What was John Stuart Mill's notion of liberty based on?
it was based on the "harm principle" which was that liberty extended up to the point of inflicting harm on another
How would Kant object to Bentham and Mill's "greatest happiness principle"
it is based on the results of actions
the inability to resolve conflicts between people's opposing "hunches" on moral issues was the greatest problem of what theory?
The notion that women are innately less morally developed than men is denied by which philosopher?
some feminist ethical philosophers would substitute or augment the notion of justice with that of
predestination (religious determinism) derives from the assumption that a human being's destiny is determined by a
supernatural being's omnipotence and omniscience
a doctor's primary dictum "do no harm" could be considered to be part of which ethical notion
many scientists accept the concept of physical determinism because their experiments depend upon the theory of
universal causation (for every result of effect there is a cause)
In what theory did Jean Paul Sartre argue for existence of human freedom on the basis of people's ability to determine how they live, despite lacking control over how they were born
when of the following thinkers argued that all human beings are driven by inner drives and motivations to behave in the way they do
religious morality is concerned with a human being in relationship to
a supernatural being
in some religions such as Buddhism and Confucianism the focus is almost entirely on
retributive and distributive justice are similar in what way?
both are concerned with the relationship between society and individuals
biblical morality and social-contract theory share what trait?
both are at least partially based upon contracts between entities
what states that free will is compatible with universal causation
What thinker believed that freedom is an illusion and that human beings are simply conditioned by external stimuli to behave in certain ways?
How does determinism differ from fatalism?
determinism states that everything has a cause; fatalism asserts that every single thing that happens is completely and irrevocably outside of human control.
living well and doing good bring about what?
Who is responsible for "the allegory of the cave" and what does it discuss the role of?
Plato argues the role of philosophers
what greek philosopher left no writings of his own
Socrates (only known due to Plato's writings)
What action brings about the highest form of happiness according to Plato?
"the doctrine of the mean"
was conceived by Aristotle and means that one should avoid extremes in behavior and action
To plato and Aristotle, the virtues are
the cynics were
-a philosophical school in Greece
-devoted to an ascetic ideal of freeing the will from all earthly noise
-among the first to actively struggle for a return to the state of nature
Which type of morality is found in more ethical systems than any other?
social morality (humans treating humans)
theory that there is a certain amount of chance and freedom in the world, and that not everything is caused. Opposite of determinism (William James)
Jesus preaches in the manner of which Old testament personages
Contracts between god and Abraham, Jesus, and Noah are referred to as
that by virtue of his power, goodness, and omniscience, God's laws should be followed
Paul ran afoul of which of the following empires
a morality based upon feelings or hunches rather than upon reason or rules (aka subjectivism)
Locke, Hobbes, and Rousseau disagreed on what
the state of nature
Which philosopher believes the state of nature consists of a war of all against all
Natural rights are...
Which philosopher turned the Golden Rule into a negative statement?
According to Hobbes the government can break the social contract by
not protecting those who have consented to obey it
Kant's ethical system stated that
ethics is based on certain eternal and universal moral truths
the hypothetical imperative was
Kant's notion that certain actions are contingent upon conditions
Rawls principles of justice are
an attempt to mix consequentialist and deontological
Jeremy Bentham worked out the felicific calculus in order to
reduce moral choices to a universally applicable algorithm
Mill vs Bentham
Mill did not hold that all pleasures were equivalent in the working out of moral consequences unlike Bentham
the main difference rule utilitarianism and act utilitarianism is
act requires us to consider the social utility of every act, whereas rule requires us to consider only the social utility of a rule and act accordingly
argued for equality of women (John Stuart Mill also argued for women)
the doctor's primary dictum do no harm could have been written by which philosopher
John Stuart Mill
the right or condition of self-government
an ethical view that particular actions are intrinsically right or wrong (ex: stealing is always wrong even if you are stealing for starving kids)
Kant's "duty ethics" theory
argues that it is possible to set up valid absolute moral rules on the basis of human reason without reference to a supernatural being
the theoretical or asserted law that every event or phenomenon results from some previous event
divine command theory
states that morality is based upon the existence of an all-good being or beings who are supernatural and have communicated to human beings what they should and shouldn't do.
"unity in diversity"
attempts to resolve the absolutism-relativism controversy by stating that human beings are similar and also different; therefore we should strive for a unity within such diversity
A determinist thinker; says human beings are determined by economic class struggles that inevitable will lead to a classless society
his discoveries in modern physics suggest that even non-conscious entities such as atoms may have freedom
asserted that consciousness could intend things instead of merely passively receiving them
believed freedom existed to some extent because we cannot always predict whether a person will choose path a or b
Marx's theory that states that human beings are determined by an evolutionary economic class struggle
is a system of ethics essentially based upon atheism or agnosticism and advocates a morality that excludes religion or religious belief
a system of ethics that can include any moral system religious or not as long as the five basic moral principles are observed.
a human being's biological and moral significance increases with development
radical individualism (in health care)
the approach that patients have absolute rights over their own bodies and lives therefore they may reject all recommendations of health care personnel.
values the preservation of organic life; eliminating life is evil
based not upon consequences, feelings, or rules, but upon human beings developing a moral or virtuous character by dong what an ideal good person would do
In Thucydides' History of the Peloponnesian War, the Athenians believe that they have the right to dominate the Melians because
they, the Athenians, have the power to do so
"excellence in attaining and practicing the virtues" is described by which Greek term?
living well and doing well
Plato vs Aristotle
-Aristotle rejected Plato's "forms"
-Plato insisted on an absolute moral goal (the good) whereas Aristotle insisted that moral rules or beliefs that hold most of the time are often the best that can be achieved
What did the Stoics believe that happiness consisted of?
Divine command theory
according to this theory if God has established moral commands, then an action is right and people are good if and only if they obey these commands regardless of the consequences
a person who evaluates truth on the basis of experience and sense observation
best expressed as "an eye for an eye" ; people should get what they deserve either by punishment or reward, regardless of consequences
deals with the way in which a person is treated in relation to another person (ex: two murderers, one gets life in prison, the other is executed, that is considered comparative INjustice
concerns itself essentially with the equitable distribution of good and bad to human beings on a just and fair basis.
justice should seek to create the greatest happiness of the greatest number
'state of nature'
a wild primitive state untouched by civilization; the wild
"principle of double effect"
states that one act may have two effects, one intended and one unintended
-under some conditions, an act that causes harm may be permissible if a good end is intended
the kingdom of ends
Kant's notion that one should act as though one were recommending one's act as an unbreakable, eternal, and universal law to fully rational free agents
the result of a process by which individuals collectively agree upon a coherent view of what is just
Bentham's felicific calculus assumes that...
-all pleasures are of equal value
-there is enough time to use the calculus in real-life situations
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