63 terms

Chapter 6 and 7 Anatomy

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

the head of each long bone
epiphysis
the central shaft like portion of a long bone
diaphysis
epithelial membrane lining the medullary cavity
endosteum
dense fibrous membrane covering the diaphysis
periosteum
latticework that makes up spongy or cancellous bone
trabeculae
concentric onion like rings in compact bone
lamellae
gaps between the rings in compact bone containing osteocytes
lacunae
covers the surface of the epiphysis
articular cartilage
which type of bone works like a lever to move limbs?
long bones
the carpal bones of the wrist are an example of what type of bone?
short bones
the heads of long bones consist of which type of bone tissue?
spongy bone
the hyaline cartilage covering the surface of the epiphysis serves what purpose?
to ease the movement of a bone within a joint
the medullary cavity in most adults is filled with what substance?
yellow marrow
why is the periosteum crucial for a bones survival?
it contains bone forming cells as well as blood vessels
the central shaft of a long bone consists of why type of tissue?
compact bone
which type of bone forms the skull, ribs and sternum?
flat bones
what is the central hollow portion of a long bone called?
medullary Cavity
where does bone lengthening occur?
epiphyseal plate (growth plate)
an increase in load causes bone cells to do what?
create new bone or increase in density
what crucial function is performed by red bone marrow?
produces red blood cells
what is bone remodeling and what purpose does it serve?
resorption is the process of destroying old bone
what four factors affect bone growth and maintenance?
hereditary, nutrition, hormones, and exercise
during fracture repair what two substances deposit into granulation tissue?
collagen and fibrocartilage
describe the difference between osteoclasts and osteoblasts?
osteoblast help form bone/osteoclasts dissolve unwanted bone
what are osteocytes and what role did they fulfill?
mature osteoblasts
what are trabeculae and what determines their arrangement?
latticework of bone making up spongy bone arranged in a way that offers maximum strength
basic structural unit of compact bone?
osteon
most bone evolves from what material?
cartilage
what term is used to describe a fracture in which the bone is broken into pieces
comminuted
what is a pathologic fracture?
break in a diseased or weakened bone usually they result from a force that wouldn't fracture a healthy bone (osteoporosis)
what are the immovable joints that hold the bones of the skull together?
sutures
what part of the vertebral column consists of 5 fused vertebrae?
sacrum
what is the larges and strongest bone in the face?
mandible
which region of the vertebrae column contain the axis and the atlas?
cervical- c1 and c2
name the three auditory ossicles
malleus, incus, and stapes
what name is given to the first seven ribs and how do they attach to the sternum?
true ribs, and they attach to the sternum by ya strip of hyaline cartilage called costal cartilage
what is the largest and strongest bone in the body?
femur
which bones form the ankle?
tarsal bones
the body of most adults consist of how many bones?
206
what is a cavity within a bone called?
sinus
how does an infant skull differ from that of an adult?
suture lines in the infant hasn't yet fused and contains fontanels (soft spots)
state the names of the vertebrae that make up the vertebral column and how many there are.
cervical- 7 thoracic- 12 lumbar - 5 sacrum 5 fused, and coccyx 4 fused
what are the three regions of the sternum?
manubrium, body of sternum and xiphoid process
what is the landmark for CPR?
xiphoid process
what classification of bone protects organs or provides large surface area for attachment of muscles?
flat bones
which substance covers the surface of the epiphysis of a long bone?
articular cartilage
what type of bone cell helps form bone, specifically the bone matrix?
osteoblasts
which type of cell assists with the regulation of blood levels of calcium and phosphate
osteocyte
what makes a bone unique from other connective tissue?
the matrix
what does the matrix do?
gives the bone strength, hardness, and density
calcium salts give bone what?
compressional strength
trabeculae are arranged in such away that what happens?
it strengthens the bone
the passageways that carry blood and nutrients from the bones exterior to the osteocytes is what?
Volkmann's canals
the process of endochondral ossification begins in which bones?
long bones
in the fetus, how is bone matrix formed?
by osteoblasts
what type of fracture is most likely to occur in a car accident?
comminuted
what type of fracture is most common in children?
greenstick
uncomplicated fractures heal in how long?
8-12 weeks
child is skateboarding without a helment, strikes lower back of head, which bone is most likely injured?
occipital bone
the two bones that meet to for the upper jaw are what?
maxilla
how is the pelvic outlet measured?
distance between the two ischium bones
what is the large opening in the skull for the spine? (completion)
FORAMEN MAGNUM
what allows the NUCLEUS to put pressure on the SPINAL NERVE/CORD (completion)
herniated disc