Chapter 1 Worksheet
Terms in this set (50)
How did historians study the past?
They study artifacts but mainly concentrate on written documents to determine the attitudes of the people
The distinction between the study of humans by archaeologist and the study of humans by historians is often denoted by the
invention of writing
Though ancient Americans lacked writing skills, they
used other kinds of symbolic representation
How do modern archaeologist study ancient peoples?
Modern archaeologist combine a variety of approaches.
What was the reason for the early, prolonged absence of humans in the Western Hemisphere?
They lacked a way of transportation
How did the climate change allow hunters to reach the Western Hemisphere?
It created the land bride of Beringia.
Although experts debate the exact time people began migrating to North America, the first migrants probably arrived by
around 15,000 BP
How long did it take Paleo-Indians to migrate throughout the Western Hemisphere after their initial arrival?
One thousand years
What do the artifacts that have survived the Paleo-Indian era suggest about the first Americans?
They were skilled hunters that specialized in the hunting of big mammals.
About 11,000 years ago, the Paleo-Indians faced a major crisis because
the large animals they hunted had difficulty adapting to the warmer climate.
How did Native American cultures adapt to the extinction of big game
Paleo-Indians began foraging wild plants.
When Europeans arrived in 1492, Native American cultures were
so varied that they defy easy and simple description.
What does the term Archaic describe?
Hunting and Gathering cultures that descended from Paleo-Indians.
Which of the following is an accurate description of Archaic Indians?
They hunted smaller game with traps, nets, and hooks.
Archaic Indians who hunted the bison herds of the Great Plains were
nomads who moved constantly with their prey
How did the introduction of bows and arrows affect Archaic Indians
it improved their hunting efficiency.
The Archaic Indians in the Great Basin inhabited a region with
great environmental diversity
What was the main source of food for Archaic peoples inhabiting the Great Basin?
Why did native peoples in California remain hunters and gatherers for hundreds of years after Europeans arrived in the Western Hemisphere?
Both land & ocean provided an abundant food supply
Archaeological evidence indicates that the California Chumash culture was characterized by
a notable amount of conflict among village due to relatively permanent villages.
Archaic Northwest peoples took advantage of which plentiful resource for sustenance and for trade?
What environmental factor shaped the cultures of the Archaic peoples of the Eastern Woodland?
Early Woodland Indians obtained food by
How did they diet and culture of Woodland peoples change around 4000 BP?
Woodland cultures adopted limited forms of plant growing.
Why did nomadic peoples shun the use of pottery?
Pots ere to heavy to carry around
How did agriculture change Archaic cultures?
It encouraged the gradual establishment of permanent settlements
Why did Archaic cultures in the Southwest adopt agriculture?
The supply of wild plant food was highly unreliable
When did corn become a food crop for southwestern cultures?
Ancient southwestern Indians became experts in the conservation of
What feature characterized the settlements of the Mogollon culture?
Why did Hohokam settlements utilize irrigation canals?
Canals allowed planting and harvesting crops twice a year.
Multistory cliff dwellings and pueblos are residential structures associated with the
The Anasazi culture disappeared due to
a drought that lasted more than 50 years.
Burial mounds and chiefdoms are associated with which ancient Americans?
Why do archaeologist believe that the first ancient Woodland mound builders were organized into chiefdoms?
The complexity of the mounds suggests that one chief commanded labor from others
What does analysis of artifacts in burial mounds reveal about the Hopewell chiefdom?
Burial was reserved for the most important members of society. It showed existence of trade network.
Scholars speculate that Hopewell culture declined because
farming & new weapons made central authority unnecessary
Experts believe that the Cahokians used woodhenges for
What is a prudent estimate of the population of Native Americans in North America at the time of Columbus's arrival in the New World?
Although the 2 regions had roughly the same population in 1492, the population density of North America was
much less than that of England
Eastern Woodland peoples around the time of Columbus's arrival in 1492 clustered into which three major groups?
Algonquian, Iroquoian, and Muskogean peoples
The league of 5 nations, which remained powerful well into the 18th century, was formed as
a loose confederation of the Iroquoian tribes for the purposes of war and diplomacy.
The Athapascan tribes- mainly Apache and Navajo - were
skillful warriors who preyed on the sedentary pueblo Indians
What characteristic was common across the many tribes inhabiting North America at the dawn of European colonization?
Their cultures had developed in relation to their local natural environments.
Evidence indicates that before 1492, Native Americans
practiced human sacrifice
How did Native Americans relate to the natural environment?
They changed the environment in a variety of ways that served their own interest
In AD 1492, the empire of the Mexica
encompassed up to 25 million people
Which group held the most exalted position in Mexican society
The Mexica used an extensive tribute system to redistribute wealth from
the poor to the rich
Spanish conquerors exploited which weakness of Mexica empire?
The empires subjects didn't see the Mexica as legitimate of fare rulers.