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Unit 3 - VCE Biology - Area of Study 2 - Detecting and Responding

A set of keywords for Unit 3 VCE Biology - Area of Study 2 - Detecting and Responding
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Abscisic Acid
A plant hormone that inhibits cell division, brings about dormancy in buds, mantains dormancy in seeds, and brings about stomatal closing.
Acetylcholine
Neurotransmitter that diffuses across a synapse and produces an impulse in the cell membrane of a muscle cell
Acquired immunity
Immunity to a particular disease that is not innate (you weren't born with it)but has been acquired during life.
Action Potential
the local voltage change across the cell wall as a nerve impulse is transmitted
Active Immunity
Acquired immunity in which the body produces its own antibodies against disease-causing antigens either after a vaccination or by naturally encountering an antigen.
Adhesion
An attraction between molecules of different substances
Adrenal Glands
Either of a pair of complex endocrine glands situated near the kidney, a pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys. the adrenals secrete the hormones epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help to arouse the body in times of stress.
Aldosterone
A corticosteroid hormone that is secreted by the cortex of the adrenal gland, increases reabsorption of sodium, helps to regulate salt and water balance.
Allergens
Substances that produce allergic reactions (stimulates hypersensitivity reaction)
Allergic Response
An instance in which the immune system overreacts to an otherwise harmless substance
Allergies
Hypersensitive responses to antigens called allergens, overactive immune responses
Alpha (α) cells
Cells of the pancreas that make and secrete the glucagon hormone..
Amino-acid derivative
A class of hormones. Small molecules that are strucurally related to amino acids and are water soluble.
Anti Diuretic Hormone
A hormone secreted by the pituitary gland that increases the permeability of cells membranes, so they absorb more water, especially from urine, that results in small amounts of concentrated urine
Anti-bacterial
Destroying bacteria or inhibiting their growth
Antibody
Proteins produced by B-lymphocytes; bind to and destroy specific antigens.
Anti-fungal
Any agent that destroys or prevents the growth of fungi
Antigen
A substance that stimulates an immune response.
Antigen-Binding Site
The site on an immunoglobulin or T-cell receptor molecule that binds specific antigen.
Antobiotics
Chemicals that inhibit growth of other microorganisms
Apoptosis
Programmed cell death - the cell uses specialized cellular machinery to kill itself
Artifical Immunity
Immunity gained either by vaccination or receiving ready made anti bodies.
Autoimmune Disease
Diseases characterized by abnormal functioning of the immune system that causes your immune system to produce antibodies against your own tissues
Axon
A long, thin fiber that transmits signals away from the neuron cell body to other neurons, or to muscles or glands.
B Cells
White blood cells manufactured in the bone marrow that create antibodies for isolating and destroying invading bacteria and viruses.
Lymphocytes
The two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system: B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances.
Basophil
White blood cell, associated with release of histamine.
Beta (β) cells
Cells of the pancreas that make and secrete the insulin hormone.
Blood-Glucose
Measurement of the level of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Normal level range is 4.4 to 6.1 mmol/L
Bone marrow
Soft tissue inside the bone that produces blood cells
Cell body
The part of a neuron that contains the nucleus and produces the energy needed for the activity of the cell.
Cell mediated response
An immune response that functions to defend cells against invasion by foreign cells and is mediated by T cells
Central Nervous System
the portion of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
Chemical Barrier
Function in non-specific immune response. Chemical barriers like sweat, tears, saliva are some examples which prevent growth of pathogenic bacteria.
Chemoreceptor
A sensory receptor that responds to chemical stimuli
Cohesion
An attraction between molecules of the same substance
Complement proteins
Normally inactive proteins, circulate in blood, when activated enhance certain immune responses.
Cytokines
Chemicals released by T helper cells that stimulate B cells
Cytokinins
Plant hormone that stimulates cell division and growth of lateral buds. Causes dormant seeds to sprout.
Cytotoxic T Cells
T cells, often called killer cells because of their capability to kill invading organisms.
Dendrite
Branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body
Diabetes
A condition of abnormal use of glucose, usually caused by too little insulin or lack of response to insulin.
Dilation
Increase in the diameter (of a vein/artery)
Disease
Any change, other than an injury, that disrupts the normal functions of the body
Dormancy
A period when an organism's growth or activity stops
Effector
An organ (a gland or muscle) that becomes active in response to nerve impulses (from, for example, a motor neuron)
Endocrine System
The system of glands that produce endocrine secretions (chemicals) that help to control bodily metabolic activity
Ethylene
Plant hormone that promotes leaf abscission and fruit ripening
Extracellular
Located or occurring outside a cell or cells
Geotropism
Growth in response to earth's gravity, as the growing of roots downward in the ground and the stem upward.
Gibberellins
Plant hormone that stimulates growth of stems by promoting cell division.
Glucagon
Hormone produced by Alpha cells of pancreas. Its release is stimulated by low blood glucose levels. It stimulates the liver, to break down its glycogen stores to glucose and subsequently to release glucose to the blood, increasing blood glucose levels.
Guard cells
Cells that control the opening and closing of stomata
Helper T Cells
T cells that help the immune system by increasing the activity of killer cells and stimulating the suppressor T cells
Histamine
Chemical released by activated mast cells that increases the flow of blood and fluids to the surrounding area
Homeostasis
Process by which organisms maintain a relatively stable internal environment despite external influences.
Hormone
A chemical that serves as a messenger which can target specific cells and cause a change in metabolic activity.
Humoral Response
An immune response (chiefly against bacterial invasion) that is mediated by B cells
Hydrophilic
Having a strong affinity for water, water loving
Hydrophobic
Lacking affinity for water, water hating
Hypersensitivity
Exaggerated response to a drug or other foreign agent through allergic mechanisms
Hypothalamus
Brain structure that acts as a control center for recognition and analysis of hunger, thirst, fatigue, anger, and body temperature
Immunoglobulin
A class of proteins produced in lymph tissue in vertebrates and that function as antibodies in the immune response
Infection
The invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms and their multiplication which can lead to tissue damage and disease
Inflammatory response
Non-specific defense triggered by penetration of the skin or mucous membranes, in which small blood vessels in the area dilate and become leakier, enhancing the inflitration of leukocytes; heat and swelling are normal signs of inflammation
Insulin
Hormone produced by Beta cells of pancreas. Its release is stimulated by high blood glucose levels. Insulin stimulates body cells to take in glucose from the blood, decreasing blood glucose levels.
Interferon
Protein produced by cells in response to being infected by a virus; helps other cells resist the virus.
Interneuron
A nerve cell that relays messages between nerve cells, especially in the brain and spinal cord
Intracellular
Located or occurring within a cell or cells
Lymphatic System
The interconnected system of spaces and vessels between body tissues and organs by which lymph circulates throughout the body
Lymphocyte
Type of white blood cell that produces antibodies that help destroy pathogens
Lymphokines
Chemicals produced by the t cells, direct the antigen-antibody response by signaling between the cells of the immune system
Macrophage
Large white blood cell that engulfs and removes bacteria, foreign particles, and dead cells
Mast Cells
Cells that produces histamine and other molecules that trigger the inflammatory response.
Mechanoreceptor
A receptor that is stimulated by changes in pressure/touch
Membrane receptors
Group of integral proteins and glycoproteins located on cell membrane that serve as binding sites for signaling molecules and cel to cell recognition.
Memory B Cells
Produced during a B cell response, but are not involved in antibody producing during the initial infection; are held in reserve for the rest of your life in case you encounter that pathogen again.
Monosynaptic
A simple two-neuron reflex arc. "One synapse"
Motor neuron
Nerve cell that carries messages away from the central nervous system towards the muscles and glands; aka: efferent neuron, it's message activates and effector.
Myelin
A fatty substance that helps insulate neurons and speeds the transmission of nerve impulses
Natural Immunity
The immunity you inherit as a result of the genes you have that allow you to make a variety of antibodies.
Natural killer cells
A nonspecific defensive cell that attacks tumor cells and destroys infected body cells, especially those infected with viruses.
Negative Feedback Model
When a stimulus causes change in the body, the body responds to counter or cancel the effect of the stimulus. e.g: When body temperature increases, body responds in such a way to decrease body temperature, thus canceling the effect of increase
Nerve
One or more bundles of neurons that connect the brain and the spinal cord with other parts of the body
Nervous System
The body system of nervous tissues--organized into the brain,spinal cord, and nerves.
Neurotransmitter
A chemical used by a neuron to transmit an impulse across a synapse to another cell - Acetlycholine is an example.
Neutrophil
A white blood cell that fights infection by swallowing bacteria (phagocytosis).
Non-Cellular agent
Prions and viruses - Infectious protein based entities.
Non-self
Cells, tissues or particles from somebody or something else.
Non-Specific Immune response
Defensive body systems that do not target specific antigens. Includes physical barriers like skin, cilia, ear wax, mucous and Chemical barriers like sweat, tears, saliva are some examples. Inflammatory response is also Non-Specific.
Estrogen
Female steroid sex hormones that are secreted by the ovary and responsible for typical female sexual characteristics
Osmoregulation
Regulation of solute concentrations and water balance by a cell or organism.
Pancreas
Gland that produces hormones (alpha cells produce glucagon and beta cells produce insulin) that regulate blood sugar.
Parasite
An organism that lives on or in a host and causes harm to the host
Passive immunity
When the body has not had to activate immune system to gain protection. Either based on inherited genes or when body receives ready made antibodies (made from another organism) through an injection. These anti bodies act on pathogens just like normal antibodies do. Useful against viruses that infect, reproduce and spread quicker than body can respond, e.g: tetanus.
Pathogen
Any disease-producing agent (especially a virus or bacterium or other microorganism)
Peptide hormone
A hormone made of amino acids. Generally hydrophilic and cannot cross the plasma membranes of cells. Receptor for peptide hormones must be found on the cell surface and binding usually activates a second messenger within the cell.
Peripheral Nervous System
The sensory and motor neurons that connect the central nervous system to the rest of the body, The section of the nervous system lying outside the brain and spinal cord
Phagocyte
A white blood cell that destroys pathogens by engulfing them and breaking them down
Phagocytosis
Process in which extensions of cytoplasm surround and engulf large particles/bacteria taking them into the cell for destruction.
Pheromone
A chemical substance secreted externally by some animals (especially insects) that influences the physiology or behavior of other animals of the same species
Phloem
The vascular tissue through which food moves in some plants
Photoreceptor
A sensory receptor that detects light.
Phototropism
Plant growth in response to light stimulus.
Pituitary Gland
The endocrine system's most influential gland. Under the influence of the hypothalamus, the pituitary regulates growth and controls other endocrine glands.
Plasma B Cells
B cells (type of white blood cell) that release their specific antibodies which then circulate through the body, binding to antigens.
Platelets
Cell fragments that play an important part in forming blood clots
Polysynaptic
Multiple synapses between one or more interneurons and sensory and motor neurons. Involving multiple synapses.
Prions
Infectious protein particles that do not have a genome. Cause Mad Cow disease
Protein hormone
A hormone composed of a long chain of amino acids.
Protozoa
One-celled animals. Many capable of infecting the blood, brain, intestines, and other body areas
Receptor
Cell structure functioning in communication. Structure to which hormones bind on target cell. Receptors are specific to certain hormones.
Reflex
Involuntary response to a stimulus, e.g: knee jerk
Renin
Hormone secreted by the kidney; it raises blood pressure by influencing vasoconstriction (narrowing of blood vessels).
Root pressure
The upward push of xylem sap in the vascular tissue of roots.
Secondary Messenger
Molecules that relay signals from receptors on the cell surface to target molecules inside the cell, in the cytoplasm or nucleus. Essential for hormones that cannot cross the plasma membrane
Sensory neuron
Nerve cell that carries information from sensory receptors or organs to the central nervous system. (also called afferent neuron). example: Optic nerve
Signal Reception
Chemical signal (eg: hormone) binds to receptor, binding causes an alteration of receptor conformation and alteration interacts with cellular molecules causing a metabolic change.
Signal transduction
A series of molecular changes that converts a signal on a target cell's receptor to a specific response inside the cell
Specific Immune response
A specific immune response to target a particular foreign invader.
Steroid
A lipid based hormone molecule whose activity changes metabolic activity. Testosterone and estrogen are examples. Can pass easily across plasma membrane.
Stimulus
A change in an organism's environment that causes the organism to react.
Stimulus-Response Model
Model describing how organisms sense and respond to stimuli in the environment. Pathway is Stimulus >Receptor > Afferent Neuron > Control Centre>Efferent Neuron >Response
Stomata
Small openings on the underside of a leaf through which oxygen and carbon dioxide can move.
Suppressor T Cells
Lymphocytes that inhibit helper T cells and cytotoxic cells Also prevent B lymphocytes from transforming into plasma cells. These cells provide the means by which the immune response can be shut down when not needed.
Synapse
The junction between the axon tip of the sending neuron and the dendrite or cell body of the receiving neuron
T Cells
White blood cells created in the thymus that produce substances that attack infected cells in the body. Function in cell mediated immune response.
Target Cell
Any cell that has a specific receptor for antigen or antibody or hormone. E.g: The specific cell/s that are targeted by a specific hormone.
Testosterone
Male steroid sex hormones that are secreted primarily by the testes and responsible for typical male sexual characteristics.
Thermoreceptor
A sensory receptor that is stimulated by temperature.
Thermoregulation
.The maintenance of body temperature within a range that enables cells to function optimally.
Thigomotropism
Directional growth in response to touch. Climbing plants utilise this response.
Thymus
Organ where lymphocytes mature to T cells.
Thyroid gland
Gland that secretes hormones - Thyroxine, which regulate growth and metabolism and calcitonin, which stimulates the formation of bone and helps regulate the amount of calcium in the blood.
Thyroxine
Hormone produced by the thyroid glands to regulate growth and metabolism.
Toxin
A harmful substance produced during the metabolism and growth of certain microorganisms and some plant and animal species.
Transpiration
The emission of water vapor from the leaves of plants
Tropisms
Directional growth responses of plants in response to specific types of stimuli - light, heat, water, gravity, chemicals, touch
Vaccines
Where a weakened,dead or damaged form of a virus is given to a person so their immune system can build up immunity to the virus (Memory) so on future infections the body can respond rapidly.
Vasoconstriction
The narrowing of blood vessels. When blood vessels become narrow, blood pressure increases.
Vasodilation
The widening of the blood vessels. When blood vessels widen, blood pressure decreases.
Vector
Any agent (person or animal or microorganism) that carries and transmits a disease
Virus
Ultramicroscopic infectious agent that replicates itself only within cells of living hosts. Composed of protein coat and nucleic acid (DNA or RNA). many causes disease.
White blood Cells
A blood cell that functions in defending the body against infections and cancer cells
Xylem
Vascular tissue that carries water upward from the roots to every part of a plant
Immune Response
The body's defensive response to invasion by bacteria, viral agents, or other foreign substances by producing specific cells to target the invader.
Auxin
Plant hormone produced in the tip of a growing plant that stimulates cell elongation and the growth of new roots