Pharm Final Review
Terms in this set (239)
Ausculated Blood Pressure
Blood pressure determined while listening with a stethoscope.
Automatic External Defibrillator (AED)
A lightweight, portable device that recognizes an abnormal rhythm and determines whether it is considered a "shockable rhythm".
Using movements that maintain proper posture and avoid muscle and bone injuries.
The amount of blood the heart pumps per minute.
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation (CPR)
The provision of ventilations (breaths) and chest compressions (blood circulation) for a person who shows no signs of breathing or having a heartbeat.
Cardiovascular Disease (CVD)
Disease related to the heart and blood vessels (veins and arteries)
An individual who has advanced skills and can assist physicians with invasive cardiovascular diagnostic tests, such as angioplasty or heart surgery.
A common name for an alert that notifies healthcare providers that a patient is unresponsive and needs assistance immediately.
Coronary Artery Disease (CAD)
Narrowing of the arteries around the heart, causing a reduction of blood flow.
A machine that produces and sends an electrical shock to the heart in an attempt to correct the electrical pattern of the heart.
Diastolic Blood Pressure
The blood pressure measure wen the heart relaxes; the minimum amount of pressure exerted against the vessel walls at all times.
Abnormal heart beat.
ECG Monitor Technician
An individual who has the technical knowledge ad skills to view and evaluate the electrical tracings of patient's hearts on a monitor and, when necessary, alert the appropriate healthcare professional to treat the abnormalities.
A tracing of the heart's electrical activity recorded by an electrocardiograph.
An instrument used to record the electrical activity of the heart.
Electrocardiograph (ECG) Technician
An individual who has the technical knowledge and skills to record an ECG and prepare it for the physician.
Standards of behavior and concepts of right and wrong; based on moral values formed through the influence of family, culture, and society.
Physicians and other medically trained personnel who are licensed by individual states to provide healthcare to patients. The scope of practice for each type of healthcare provider is determined by the state license.
High blood pressure.
A lower-than normal blood pressure that can cause reduction of blood flow to vital organs.
The second level of steps taken to prevent the spread of infection; used when a specific infection is known or suspected.
A rule of conduct that is enforced by a controlling authority such as the government.
Writing defamatory words about someone; both illegal and unethical.
Medical Professional Liability
Healthcare professionals are legally responsible for their performance.
Myocardial Infarction (MI)
Damage to the heart muscle ca used by lack of oxygen due to a blockage of one or more of the coronary arteries.
Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)
Devices such as gloves, gowns, face masks or shields, and eye protection designed to protect a healthcare worker from sources of infection.
Making derogatory remarks or speaking defamatory words about someone; both illegal and unethical.
Procedures such as performing hand hygiene and wearing gloves, that are used with all patients and are designed to prevent the spread of infection.
Systolic Blood Pressure
The blood pressure measured when the left ventricle of the heart contracts.
A monitoring system in which ECG tracings are communicated from a patient outside of a medical facility to the physician via a telephone or digital system.
Temperature, pulse, respiration, blood pressure, and pain assessment.
The process of drug movement into the systemic circulation.
A drug that binds to a receptor and produces a stimulatory response that is similar to what an endogenous substance (such as a hormone) would have done if it were bound to a receptor.
A sudden, severe allergic reaction that may be life-threatening.
A drug or another agent that blocks or antagonizes the effects of another substance or function.
Pre systemic metabolism affects the amount of drug that reaches the systemic circulation intact and the speed at which it happens.
The process of conversion of drugs.
The process of dissolving.
The passage of an agent through blood or lymph to various body sites.
(Dose-Respond Relationship) The relationship between the dose of a drug (or other agent) that produces therapeutic effects and the potency of the effects of the person.
The last stage of pharmacokinetics that removes drugs from the system, via the kidneys.
Orally administered drugs are usually absorbed into the upper GI tract. They are immediately exposed to metabolism by liver enzymes before they reach the systemic circulation.
The time taken for the blood or plasma concentration of the drug to decreased from full to one-half (50%).
The sum of chemical and physical changes in the tissues, consisting of anabolism and catabolism.
A toxic dose of the drug that causes harm.
Refers to the biochemical and physiologic effects of drugs and mechanics of drug action (the effects of a drug on the body or organism).
The study of drugs derived from herbal and other natural sources.
The study of the absorption, distribution, biotransformation, and excretion of drugs.
The study of drugs, including their action and effects in living body systems.
The study of how drugs may be best used in the treatment of illnesses and which drug is most or least appropriate to use for a specific disease.
Usually a specific protein situated either in cell membranes, on cell surfaces, or within the cellular cytoplasm.
Toxic drug action can be influenced by drug metabolism, interactions, activation, toxicity and adverse effects (often referred to as side effects). The are usually (but not always) undesirable.
Effects means to treat a disease or disorder.
The development of resistance to the effects of a drug such that drug's dose must be continually raised to elicit the desired response.
The state of being noxious and refers to a drug's ability to poison the body.
The study of poisons and poisonings; almost all drugs are capable of being toxic.
The change in the electrical potential of the heart muscle when it is stimulated.
The largest artery of the body, which transports oxygenated blood from the left ventricle of the heart to the entire body.
Aortic Semilunar Valve
Valve located in the aorta that prevents the back flow of blood into the left ventricle.
Atrioventricular (AV) Node
Delays the electrical impulse to allow the atria to complete their contraction.
Two top chambers of the heart.
The ability of the heart to initiate an electrical impulse without being stimulated by another or independent source.
The estruture that relays the electrical impulse from the SA node to the left atrium in a normal heart.
Left and right branches of the bundle of His that conduct impulses down either side of the interventricular septum to the left and right ventricles.
Bundle of His (AV Bundle)
Located next to the AV node; provides the transfer of the electrical impulse from the atria to the ventricles.
The contraction and relaxation of the heart.
Structures that connect atrioventricular valves to the papillary muscles and prevent them from opening in the wrong direction.
Atrial or ventricular contractions as they appear on the ECG; complete ECG waveforms.
The ability of the heart cells to receive and transmit an electrical impulse.
The ability of the heart muscle cells to respond to shorten in response to an electrical stimulus.
The circulation of blood to and from the heart muscle.
Blood that has little or minimal oxygen (oxygen-poor blood).
The electrical activation of the cells of the heart that initiates contraction of the heart muscle.
The phase of the cardiac cycle when the heart is expanding and refilling; also known as the relaxation phase.
The ability of the heart muscle cells to respond to an impulse or stimulus; also called irritability.
The period of time between two actives within the heart.
A partition or wall (septum) that divides the right and left ventricles.
Occurs when there is a sudden loss or reduction in blood supply (oxygen) to a region of the heart tissue. This occurs due to the presence of atherosclerotic plaque, blood clot, emboli, or even vascular spasm (Prinzmetal's angina).
The period when the electrical tracing of the ECG is at zero or a straight line, and no positive or negative deflections are seen.
The left upper chamber of the heart, which receives blood from the lungs.
The left lower chamber of the heart, which pumps oxygenated blood through the body. It is the biggest and strongest chamber, known as the workhorse of the heart.
Mitral (Bicuspid) Valve
Valve with two cups or leaflets located between the left atrium and left ventricle; it prevents black flow of blood into the left atrium.
Pertaining to the heart (cardi) and muscle (myo).
Blood having oxygen (oxygen-rich blood).
Muscles in the ventricles that anchor the chordae tendinea and atrioventricular valves.
The part of the ANS that helps slow the heart rate.
A two-layered sac of tissue enclosing the heart.
The state of cellular rest in which the inside is negatively charged and the outside is positively charged.
Large artery that transports deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs. This is the only artery in the body that carries deoxygenated blood.
The transportation of blood to and from the lungs; blood is oxygenated in the lungs during pulmonary circulation.
Pulmonary Semilunar Valve
Valve found in the pulmonary artery that prevents back flow of blood to the right ventricle.
Transport oxygen back int the left atrium of the heart. These are the only veins that carry oxygenated blood.
The fibers within the heart that distribute electrical impulses from cell to cell throughout the ventricles.
Spreads the electrical impulses throughout the ventricles by means of the Purkinje fibers.
The return of heart muscle cells to their resting electrical state, causing the heart muscle to relax.
The right upper chamber of the heart, which receives blood from the body.
The right lower chamber of the heart, which pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs.
A portion or part of the electrical tracing produced by the heart.
A valve with half-moon shaped cusps that open and close, allowing blood to travel only one way; located in the pulmonary artery and aorta.
Sinoatrial (SA) Node
An area of specialized cells in the upper right a atrium that initiates the heartbeat.
The part of the ANS that causes an increase in heart rate.
The pathways for pumping blood throughout the body and back to the heart.
The contraction phase of the cardiac cycle, during which the heart is pumping blood out to the pulmonary (lungs) and systemic (body) circulation.
Valve located between the right atrium and ventricle; it prevents back flow of blood into the right atrium.
Largest vein the body, which provides a pathway for deoxygenated blood to return to the heart; its upper portion, superior vena cava, transports blood from the head, arms, and upper body; and its lower portion, the inferior vena cava, transports blood from the lower body and legs.
A measure of the vascular resistance that the left ventricle must overcome in order to eject blood during contraction.
Drug obtained from plants of the genus Digitalis.
Cardiac Output (CO)
The amount of blood pumped per minute by the heart.
Chronic Heart Failure (CHF)
Condition in which the heart is unable to pump sufficient blood to the tissues of the body.
Method of dosage with cardiac glycosides that rapidly produces effective drug levels.
Extra heartbeat, a type of cardiac arrhythmia.
High serum calcium.
High serum potassium.
Low serum potassium.
daily dosage of cardiac glycoside that maintains effective drug levels in the blood.
Na/K Adenosine Triphophatase (Na/K ATPase)
Enzyme that energies the sodium/potassium pump and is inhibited by cardiac glycosides.
Refers to venous return, the amount of blood returning to the heart that must be pumped.
Drug used to restore natural cardiac rhythm.
Disorder of cardiac conduction and electrical impulse formation.
Quinidine toxicity, which is characterized y ringing in the ears (tinnitus), dizziness, and headache.
Area of the heart from which abnormal impulses originate.
Premature Atrial Contractions (PAC)
Premature contraction of the atria, usually caused by an ectopic focus.
Premature Ventricular Contractions (PVC)
Premature contraction of the ventricles, usually caused by an ectopic focus.
An arrhythmia caused by administration of an antiarryhthmic drug.
Arrhythmia that originates above the AV node in the atria.
Torsade De Pointes
A type of proarrhythmia that causes ventricular tachycardia and fainting.
The most serious arrhythmia; usually a terminal event where ventricular contractions are no longer able to effectively pump blood.
Negatively charged ions.
Antidiuretic Hormone (ADH)
Hormone that is released from the pituitary gland.
Positively charged ions.
A chemical waste molecule, produced in skeletal muscle tissue by breakdown of Creatinine phosphatase.
Excess loss of body water.
A group of drugs that promote water loss from the body.
Abnormal fluid collection.
How much electrolytes are taken into the body through food, water, and vitamins.
How many electrolytes the body losses through swear, and urine production.
Surrounding thin-walled sac like structure.
Urine formation begins with the filtration of plasma by globular capillaries.
Filtering unit composed of a cluster of capillaries.
Loop of Henle
The functional unit of the kidney.
Concentration of particles in plasma.
Consists of a filtering unit composed of a cluster of blood capillaries.
Leads away from the glomerular capsule and becomes highly coiled.
A hormone that converts antiotensiogen to angiotensin I, erythropoietin and vitamin D for the regulation of blood pressure and red blood cell production and calcium metabolism.
Total Body Water
Total content of water in the body.
Where the kidneys return filtered fluid to the internal environment.
The cells of the tubules remove certain substances from the blood and deposit them into the fluid in the tubules.
The most abundant organic waste.
Another waste molecule, formed by recycling a nitrogenous base from RNA molecules.
Low levels of water in the body.
Volume of water gained each day.
Water of Metabolism
60% is obtained from drinking water or other beverages, and 30% comes from moist foods. The remaining 10% is a byproduct of the oxidative metabolism of nutrients.
The horizontal axis of the EKG paper records:
The vertical axis of the EKG paper records:
What are the three methods for calculating a heart rate on an EKG called ?
6 Second Method
R to R Method (300 Method)
The P wave indicates:
The T wave indicates:
The U wave indicates the recovery of:
Purkinje conduction fibers
How many large blocks equal 1 second?
Two large blocks equals how many millivolts?
The QT interval represents the time of ventricular activity include both:
Ventricular depolarization and repolarization.
Some medication doses must be adjusted based on:
Body weight, and body surface area, especially in children.
Various factors that affect drug actions:
Age, gender, body weight, diurnal body rhythms. diseases, and drug half-life.
Most drug metabolism occurs where?
The initial rate of distribution of a drug depends heavily on:
The blood flow to the various organs.
Certain drugs are poorly distributed to the CNS because of the:
Blood brain barrier.
What is a process that carries blood directly to the liver?
Hepatic portal circulation
Microsomal enzymes - cytochrome P-450 which has an essential role in:
The main route of drug excretion is:
Through the kidneys
Adverse effets are a major cause of:
Morbidity and mortality, especially in elderly patients.
Idiosyncratic reaction is:
When a patient experiences a unique, strange or unpredicted reaction to a drug.
When should anaphylactic shock be treated?
Soon after shock begins.
Drugs that commonly produce tolerance are:
Opiates, nitrates, barbiturates, alcohol, and tobacco.
What is cumulative effect?
When the body is not able to metabolize and excrete one dose of a drug completely before the next dose is given.
What is potentiation?
An interaction between two drugs. EX: Alcohol potentiates the sedating effects of the tranquilizer when both are taken at the same time.
The leading cause of death in the United States is:
Cardiovascular disease (CVD)
Who is credited with determining that the human heart produces electrical currents?
Dr. Augustus. D. Walker
An automatic external defibrillator (AED) is used to treat what conditions?
Sudden cardiac arrest
Abnormal heart rhythms
The role of an ECG technician is to:
Record the ECG tracing, determine if the ECG tracing is accurate an without abnormalities caused by interference during the recording producer, and prepare the tracing for the physicians interpretation.
Who would sign the consent form if a patient cannot read or write?
What measures would you use to prevent the spread of infection to you and your patients?
Follow standard precautions and when necessary, the appropriate isolation precautions.
Respirations are counted for:
1 full minute
Which three vital signs are of particular importance to ECG techs?
Pulse, blood pressure, and respirations.
Who received a Nobel Prize for inventing the Electrocardiograph?
What is a normal pulse range?
Calcium channel blockers are drugs that:
Decrease contractility of the heart, decrease conductivity of the heart, decrease the heart's demand for oxygen.
Transtelephonic monitoring allows information to be transmitted over:
Where are continuous ECGs commonly used?
What does HIPPA do?
Keeps patient information protected.
What is the single most important thing you can do to prevent the spread of infection?
Where do you measure the adult pulse?
What does systolic blood pressure represent?
Left ventricle contracts
What are beta blockers used to treat?
Congestive Heart Failure
Beta blockers block the effects of:
The beta adrenergic receptors of the ________ play an important role in the regulation of the heart function.
Beta receptors are located in many places, but are found in:
Very high numbers in the heart and blood vessels.
What do beta blockers do?
Slow the heart rate
Decrease cardiac output
Lessen the force with which the heart muscle contracts
Reduces blood vessel contraction
Nitrates are drugs that:
Dilate artereis to the heart, increasing the blood glow to the heart, relieving angina symptoms such as chest pain or pressure.
The main effect of beta blockers:
Slow the heart rate.
Vasodilators decrease afrerload by affecting what?
What are the causes of heart failure?
Weakening of contractile force
What does the autonomic nervous system of the heart do?
Regulates the rate and force of the contractions of the heart.
In the context of cardiac nerve supply, the sympathetic nervous system:
Becomes active when the body needs to expand energy during the "fight or flight" reaction.
Which of the following is a neurotransmitter released by sympathetic nerves that travels to the SA node of the heart to increase the heart rate?
The parasympathetic nervous system has ______ effect on myocardial contraction.
What regulates the rate and force of the heart contractions?
The autonomic nervous system
A patient with atherosclerosis will also have:
An increase in the heart rate primarily begins with stimulation of which part of the conduction system:
Sinoatrial node (SA node)
What do the Purkinje fibers do?
They distribute excitation through the ventricular myocardium.
The most common cause of papillary muscle dysfunction is:
Contrary Artery Disease (CAD)
One of the most important technical factors used t optimize color flow images, besides proper Doppler angle is:
When determining a pseudoaneurysm from a true aneurysm the ratio of the neck to the aneurysm is:
A frequent complication of tricuspid valve vegetation is:
Septic pulmonary emboli
Which of the following will not demonstrate respiratory variations?
To determine the MVA by the planimetry method, the correct method is:
Trace the inner surface of the leaflets where the tissue and blood pool join.
Describe low frequency transducers:
They improve depth penetration but reduce image quality.
Findings associated with pulmonic stenosis may be all of the following except:
Dilated right ventricle
Patients with higher than normal heart rates may cause the Doppler signal of the left ventricle inflow to:
Have a single E/A velocity
What is circulation?
The process of transporting blood and from the body tissues.
What is recorded on the ECG strip?
Each electrical activity of the heart is recorded.
What are the layers of the heart?
Pericardium- Double layer sac that encloses the heart
Pulmonary circulation is between what?
The heart and the lungs.
Systemic circulation is between what?
The heart and the body.
Coronary circulation is:
The hearts blood supply
What are the first vessels to branch off the aorta called?
Order of the conduction system (electrical impulse):
Bundle of His
Ventricular depolarization / atrial repolarization
Repolarization of the Purkinje fibers and Bundle of His
Beginning of atrial depolarization to the beginning of ventricular depolarization.
Period of time from the start of ventricular depolarization to the end of ventricular repolarization.
Time between ventricular depolarization and the beginning of ventricular repolarization.
What wave will show an electrolyte imbalance?
PR interval is usually:
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