SSUSH#8

SSUSH8 The student will explain the relationship between growing north-south divisions and westward expansion
STUDY
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Missouri Compromise 1820
Allowed Missouri to enter the union as a slave state, Maine to enter the union as a free state, prohibited slavery north of latitude 36˚ 30' within the Louisiana Territory (1820)
Nullification Crisis
Southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void, Jackson responded with Force bill and suggested compromising over tariff; John C Calhoun was a big advocate
Sectionalism
Loyalty to one's own region of the country, rather than to the nation as a whole
States Rights
the belief that an individual state may restrict federal authority, belief that because the states created the United States, individual states have the power to nullify federal laws
Mexican American War
1846 - 1848 - President Polk declared war on Mexico over the dispute of land in Texas. At the end, American ended up with 55% of Mexico's land.
Mestizos
A person of mixed Native American and European ancestry
Sam Houston
United States politician and military leader who fought to gain independence for Texas from Mexico and to make it a part of the United States (1793-1863), First president of the Republic of Texas
The Alamo
Santa Anna's army succeeded in late 1836. His force of 4000 men laid siege to San Antonio, whose 200 Texan defenders retreated into an abandoned mission, the Alamo. After repeated attacks, the remaining 187 Texans including Davy Crockett were wiped out
Republic of Texas
Independent nation of Texas, which lasted from 1836 until 1848, when Texas was annexed to the United States
Annexation
The adding of a region to the territory of an existing political unit.
James K Polk
The 11th U.S. President, he led the country during the mexican war and sought to expand the United States
Zachary Taylor
General that was a military leader in Mexican-American War and 12th president of the United States. Sent by president Polk to lead the American Army against Mexico at Rio Grande, but defeated.
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million
Ceded
gave up
Bear Flag Republic
nickname for California after it declared independence from Mexico in 1846
Wilmot Proviso
Bill that would ban slavery in the territories acquired after the War with Mexico
Popular Sovereignty
The concept that a States people should vote whether to be a slave state or Free
Gold Rush
a period from1848 to 1856 when thousands of people came to California in order to search for gold.
49ers
People who rushed to california in 1849 for gold.
John C. Calhoun
South Carolina Senator - advocate for state's rights, limited government, and nullification
Compromise of 1850
Includes California admitted as a free state, the Fugitive Slave Act, made popular sovereignty in most other states from Mexican- American War
Fugitive Slave Act
a law that made it a crime to help runaway slaves; allowed for the arrest of escaped slaves in areas where slavery was illegal and required their return to slaveholders
Underground Railroad
a system of secret routes used by escaping slaves to reach freedom in the North or in Canada
Harriet Tubman
Former slave who helped slaves escape on the Underground Railroad
Harriett Beecher Stowe
Author of a book called Uncle Tom's Cabin. It was a novel that vividly described slavery. It was a best seller and caused a big stir. People think it was a big contribution to the Civil War
Uncle Tom's Cabin
Written by Harriet Beecher Stowe in 1853 that highly influenced england's view on the American Deep South and slavery. a novel promoting abolition. intensified sectional conflict.
Transcontinental Railroad
Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California's railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west
Gadsden Purchase
Southwestern territory acquired by the Pierce administration to facilitate a southern transcontinental railroad and completed the lower 48 States
Kansas Nebraska Act
This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare.
Bleeding Kansas
A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent.
John Brown
violent abolitionist who murdered slaveholders in Kansas and Missouri (1856-1858) before his raid at Harpers Ferry (1859), hoping to incite a slave rebellion; he failed and was executed, but his martyrdom by northern abolitionists frightened the South.
Harper's Ferry
John Brown's scheme to invade the South with armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, northern abolitionists; seized the federal arsenal; Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hanged
Republican Party 1850's--->>
- new political party- anti slavery roots
- anti expansion of slavery
- national party, unite regional political ideas
Dred Scott v Sanford 1857
Court ruled that Scott was the property of Sanford and, as a slave, was prohibited from suing in court. Chief Justice Taney gives his opinion that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional. Decision adds to sectionalism between North and South that will lead to the Civil War.
Lincoln Douglas Debates
1858 Senate Debate, Lincoln forced Douglas to debate issue of slavery, Douglas supported pop-sovereignty, Lincoln asserted that slavery should not spread to territories, Lincoln emerged as strong Republican candidate but lost senate election
Lincolns Election 1860
Lincoln wins, southern states begin to secede
Confederate States of America
the southern states that seceded from the United States in 1861
Jefferson Davis
President of the Confederate States of America
Abraham Lincoln
16th President of the United States saved the Union during the Civil War and emancipated the slaves; was assassinated by Booth (1809-1865)
Martial Law
rule by the army instead of the elected government