AP Government United States Constitution Chapter 2

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Terms in this set (...)

amendment
a written change to the Constitution
Annapolis Convention
A convention held in September 1786 to consider problems of trade and navigation, attended by five states and important because it issued the call to Congress and the states for what became the Constitutional Convention
antifederalists
people who opposed the constitution
Articles of Confederation
a written agreement ratified in 1781 by the thirteen original states, weak central gov. strong state gov.
charter colony
colony established by a group of settlers who had been given a formal document allowing them to settle
checks and balances
A system that allows each branch of government to limit the powers of the other branches in order to prevent abuse of power
commerce and slave trade compromise
protected slave holders, congress forbidden to tax export goods from any state, and forbidden to act on slave trade for 20 years
Connecticut Compromise
Constitutional Convention proposal that created a House proportionate to population and a Senate in which all states were represented equally
Constitution
the body of fundamental laws setting out the principles, structures, and processes of a government
Constitutional Convention of 1787
Delegates met to revise the Articles of Confederation, but ultimately decided to write the Constitution as a replacement
Continental Congress
the legislative assembly composed of delegates from the rebel colonies who met during and after the American Revolution
Decleration of Independence
a 1776 document stating that the 13 English colonies were a free and independent nation
distribution of powers
an underlying principle of the American constitution system designed to prevent tyranny by assigning powers to different governments and agencies and by checking the exercise of power
economic interpretation of the constitution
theory that the framers of the Constitution represented the well-to-do classes and was designed to protect their interests
Federalist Papers
a series of 85 essays written by Hamilton, Madison, and Jay published in NY newspapers and used to convice readers to adopt the new constitution
Mayflower Compact
1620 - The first agreement for self-government in America. It was signed by the 41 men on the Mayflower and set up a government for the Plymouth colony
New Jersey Plan
New Jersey delegate William Paterson's plan of government, in which states got an equal number of representatives in Congress
Preamble
a preliminary introduction to a statute or constitution
proprietary colony
a colony given to a proprietor to govern
royal colony
A colony under the direct control of a monarch
separation of powers
a principle of govt. whereby constitutional authority is shared by 3 separate branches of govt.
Shay's Rebellion
Early 1787, rebellion by farmers in debt, which was quickly stopped stopped by President George Washington
state sovereignty
The state has the political power to govern itself rather than the federal government
Three-fifths Compromise
An agreement reached at the Constitutional Convention of 1787 to count 3/5 of slave population in state representatives
Virginia Plan
Initial proposal at the Constitutional Convention made by the Virginia delegation for a strong central government with a bicameral legislature dominated by the big states
Northwest Ordinance
The 1787 Northwest Ordinance defined the process by which new states could be admitted into the Union from the Northwest Territory
consent of the governed
the idea that government derives its authority by the sanction of the people
factions
Interest groups arising from the unequal distribution of property or wealth that James Madison attacked in Federalist Paper No. 10.
US Constitution
The government of the United States. A set of principles (guidelines) that describe the duties and powers of the government
natural rights
the idea that all humans are born with rights, which include the right to life, liberty, and property
Federalists
supporters of the stronger central govt. who advocated the ratification of the new constitution
Marbury v Madison
established concept of judicial review, first time supreme court declared something 'unconstitutional'
Social Contract
an implicit agreement among people that results in the organization of society
enumerated powers
the expressed powers of Congress that are itemized and numbered 1-18 in Article I, Section 8 of the Constitution
Elastic Clause
Clause in the Constitution that allows Congress to pass laws necessary to carry out its enumerated powers
limited government
basic principle of American government which states that government is restricted in what it may do, and each individual has rights that government cannot take away
Writ of Habeas Corpus
a writ ordering a prisoner to be brought before a judge
Bill of Rights
The first 10 amendments to the U.S. Constitution
judicial review
the power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional
Confederation government
Loose unit of independent states. In this type of government each state has it's own government. Each state retains its independency.
Supremacy Clause
constitutional declaration (Article VI) that the Constitution and laws made under its provisions are the greatest law of the land
amendment process
the way in which changes are added to the Constitution, 2/3 vote in congress, 3/4 of states
bicameral legislature
A law making body made of two houses (bi means 2). Example: Congress (our legislature) is made of two house - The House of Representatives and The Senate.
electoral college
a group of people named by each state legislature to select the president and vice president
executive agreement
an agreement between the President and the leader of another country
Great Compromise
Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house
Madisonian Model
A structure of government proposed by James Madison in which the powers of the government are separated into three branches: executive, legislative, and judicial.
ratification
formal approval, final consent to the effectiveness of a constitution, constitutional amendment, or treaty