AP Government Civil Liberties & Civil Rights Chapter 4
Terms in this set (58)
constitutional guarantees essential for personal liberty. freedoms of speech, press,religion,assembly,and petition, freedom from involuntary servitude, and the right to equal protection of the law.
civil rights acts of 1866,1870,1871, and 1875
laws passed by congress after the civil war to guarantee the rights of blacks
civil rights act of 1957
the first civil rights law passed by congress since reconstruction, designed to secure the right to vote for blacks
civil rights act of 1960
a law designed to further secure the right to vote for blacks and to meet problems arising from racial upheavals in the south
civil rights act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places.
civil rights act of 1968
this law banned discrimination in housing, the segregation of education, transprotation, and employment, it helped African Americans gain their full votin rights.
bad tendency rule
a test used by the supreme court to determine the permissible bounds of free speech
a concept used by judges to weigh the competing interests or values in a case
bill of attainder
a legislative act that declares the guilt of an individual and metes out punishment without a judicial trial
bill of rights
the first ten amendments to the united states constitution. it contains a listing of the rights a person enjoys that cannot be infringed upon by the government
the curbing of ideas either in speech or in writing before they are expressed
refusal to obey a law, usually on the ground that the law is morally reprehension.
those liberties usually spelled out in a bill of rights or a constitution that guarantee the protection of persons, opinions, and property frome the arditrary interference of government officials.
positive acts of government designed to protect persons against arbitrary or discriminatory treatment by government or individuals.
de facto segregation
the existence of racially segregated facilities that are,however,not required by law.
the guarantee in the fifth amendment to the constitution that one may not be twice put in jepordy of life or loimb for the same offense.
due process of law
protection against arbitrary deprivation of life, liberty, or property.
the power inherent in all government to take over private property, provided that it is taken for a public purpose and that just compensation is awarded.
equal protection of the law
a requirement of the fourteenth amendment that state laws may not arbitrarily discriminate against persons
a term used to describe the movement to equalize the right of men and women
ex post facto law
a criminal law that is retroactive and that has an adverse effect upon one accused oa a crime
freedom of assembly
the right of the people to congregate for the discussion of public questions and to organize into political parties or pressure groups for the purpose of influencing public policy
freedom of association
the right to organize for political, religious, or other social purposes
freedom of the press
the right to publish and disseminate information without prior restraint, subject to penalties for abuse of the right
freedom of religion
freedom of worship and religious practice
freedom of speech
the right to speak without prior restraint, subject to penalties for abuse of the right
a court order directing an official who has a person in custody to bring the prisoner to court and to show cause for his detention
a privilege granted to a person that exempts him from prosecution for any self-incriminating testimony given by him before a court, grand jury, or investigating committee
libel and slander
written) (oral) you cannot make false statements in public that might damage a persons reputiation unless you can prove it
the great charter of freedom granted in 1215 by king john of england on demand of his barons
an underlying assumption of the american political creed that men are endowed by their creator with certain rights that may not be abridged by government
a request to a public official that seeks to correct a wrong or to influence public policy
the power inherent in state governments to protect the health, safety, morals, and welfare of the people
the right to participate in the management of government and to influence public policy
an advantage, benefit, or opportunity granted to an individual or group to which it has no right
protection against arbitrary actions by public officials
a belief that differences among people are rooted in ethnic stock
the standard for determining the guilt of a person charged with a criminal offense
a requirement that one profess belief in a particular religious faith or in a supreme being as a condition to holding public office
right to bear arms
the guarantee in the second amendment of the right to keep weaponds, recognition that "a well regulated militia is necessary to the security of a free state"
right to counsel
the guarantee in the sixth amendment to the constitution that a defendant in a criminal case have the assistance of an attorney
search and seizure
methods by which police officers gather evidence and make arrests
actions that incite rebellion or discontent against duly established government
the separation of the white and black races in public and private facilities
testimony by a person that reveals facts that amy result in a criminal prosecution against him
separation of church and state
a basic principle of american government that prohibits the mingling of church and state
a native or naturalized member of a state or other political community
the First Amendment guarantee that the government will not create and support an official state church
a rule that provides that otherwise admissible evidence cannot be used in a criminal trial if it was the result of illegal police conduct
nonverbal communication, such as burning a flag or wearing an armband. The Supreme Court has accorded some symbolic speech protection under the first amendment.
The view that most of the protections of the Bill of Rights apply to state governments through the Fourteenth Amendment's due process clause.
free exercise clause
the First Amendment guarantee that citizens may freely engage in the religious activities of their choice
words falsely spoken that damage the reputation of another
print slanderous statements against
de jure segregation
segregation that is imposed by law
a legal right guaranteed by the 15th amendment to the US constitution
a policy designed to redress past discrimination against women and minority groups through measures to improve their economic and educational opportunities
Using race or sex to give preferential treatment to some people.
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