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Terms in this set (39)
Famous for the BOBO doll study- explained the social learning theory. Aggression is learned through observing and imitating others. The experiment is important because it sparked many more studies on the effects of violent media on children.
A French psychologist that came up with the first widely used intelligence test. He was hired by the French public school system to find children that needed special help. First used the IQ formula: MA/CA * 100= IQ. Influenced today's widely accepted intelligence test, the Stanford-Binet test.
Physician that reported after damage to specific area of the left frontal lobe, known as Broca's area, a person would have trouble forming words but still be able to sing familiar songs and comprehend speech
Mary Whiton Calkins
First female president of the APA
One of the fathers of modern linguistics. His theory of generative grammar emphasizes universal grammar. His view was different from B.F. Skinners because he thought that certain aspects of linguistic knowledge were innate
A British naturalist best known for his contributions to EVOLUTIONARY theory. Darwin outlined his theory of natural selection in his influential book On the Origin of Species. His ideas shaped the course of evolutionary studies, including evolutionary psychology.
Creation of American mental hospitals
Famous for creating the CURVE OF FORGETTING. States that we forget the most information within the first 20 minutes, then an hour, then a day. The forgetting curve is exponential, just like the learning curve.
Often know as the father of modern psychology and psychoanalysis. Believed that the unconscious determines everything we do. His theories include the ideas of the stages of psychosexual development (oral, anal, phallic, latent, genital) and the three parts of the mind- the id, ego, and superego. Believed that dreams, free association, and hypnosis could reveal the unconscious mind.
A railroad worker who had a large iron rod go completely through his left frontal lobe while working. He became a very angry person after his accident. His case concluded that specific areas of the brain affect personality.
Developed the idea of "nature vs. nurture". He studied genetics and how they affected people's individualism. Nature means how a person acts because of their genetics and nurture means how a person acts based on their environment. He believed nature is the most important in the debate.
Taste Aversion studies, Discovered taste aversion when looking at effects of radiation on rats. Rats became nauseous from the radiation, but since the taste of water from a plastic bottle was accidentally paired with this radiation, the rats developed an aversion for this water.
Created the theory of multiple intelligences that opposed Spearman's idea of one general intelligence. Believed there are eight 'smarts,' which are language smarts, logic smarts, music smarts, spatial smarts, kinesthetic smarts, intrapersonal smarts, interpersonal smarts, and nature smarts.
Split-brain research; understanding of functional lateralization in the brain; how the cerebral hemispheres communicate
G. Stanley Hall
1st psych lab in America at Johns Hopkins; 1st President of the APA
Best known for his research on hypnosis. Creator of the hypnosis theory of a "hidden observer" where a person undergoing hypnosis can observe his or her pain without feeling any actual suffering.
David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel
Two Harvard University researchers who received the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for their discoveries about information processing in the visual system. By recording impulses from individual brain cells of cats and monkeys, Hubel and Wiesel demonstrated that specialized cells in the mammalian brain respond to complex visual features of the environment.
Wrote the first influential textbook on psychology, called Principles of Psychology (1890), a leading psychologist in the Functionalism movement, which emphasized the function (rather than the structure) of consciousness.
Insight learning in chimps
Known for her work in the study of false memory formation and the misinformation effect. Famous for her car crash experiment- After viewing a video, those who were asked the question with the smashed wording were much more likely to "remember" seeing broken glass in a later question (in reality, no glass had been broken in the accident). They also remembered the car as driving much faster.
George A. Miller
STM's "Magic Number" = 7 ± 2
His experiments with dogs led him to discover classical conditioning. Discovered that he could condition dogs to salivate at the sound of a tone when the tone was repeatedly presented with food. He also discovered that if he sounded the bell over and over then the reaction would become extinct, but it may reappear the next day when the bell is sounded- spontaneous recovery.
Studied the cognitive development of children. Defined four stages of cognitive development: sensorimotor, in which babies develop object permanence and stranger anxiety; preoperational, in which toddlers are egocentric; concrete operational, in which children develop ideas such as conservation; and formal operational, in which people ages 12+ begin to understand abstract concepts.
An influential modern theorist of classical conditioning. Rescorla has made numerous refinements to classical conditioning theories.
a stimulus must provide the subject information about the likelihood that certain events will occur.
Humanistic psychologist who used the theory of self-concept. To help his clients get back on the road to self-actualization, he developed a therapeutic approach called client-centered therapy, in which the therapist offers the client unconditional positive regard by supporting the client regardless of what is said.
Associated with operant conditioning and responsible for the Skinner Box, or the operant conditioning chamber. He sought to understand behavior as a function of environmental histories of reinforcing consequences (as all behaviorists do).
Believed that only one type of intelligence- g, or general intelligence exists. This is tested on a standard IQ test.
A pioneer in the study of lateralization, the fact that the right and left hemispheres of the brain regulate different functions. Sperry and his colleagues examined people who had gone through split-brain surgery, an operation that separates the two brain hemispheres.
Distinguished among three aspects of intelligence: analytical intelligence, creative intelligence, and practical intelligence. He contributed to the idea that there is more to creativity than that which intelligence tests reveal.
He revised Alfred Binet's earlier tests and invented the Stanford-Binet IQ Tests. Believed that children who scored high on his IQ tests were "gifted" and likely to become society's leaders in adulthood. Also, he felt that the tests results proved that black men intelligence was inferior to the intelligence of white men.
Edward L. Thorndike
Widely known for the law of effect- the principle that rewarded behavior is likely to recur and punished behavior is unlikely to recur. This principle was the basis for BF Skinner's behavioral technology.
Most famous for his studies on behavioral psychology, studied latent learning. He is known for his study of learning with rats in mazes, rats who run the maze without a reward still learn how to complete the maze
Margaret Floy Washburn
1st female Ph.D. in psych
Established the idea of behaviorism. Recommended the study of behavior without reference to unobservable mental process. Also conducted the "Little Albert" experiment where he proved classical conditioning. He presented the child with a white rat and a loud noise and soon enough the child was afraid of the white rat.
Notable for his work in sensation and difference thresholds. His principle that two stimuli, to perceive their difference, much be a constant proportion, not a constant amount, is known as Weber's law.
The former chief psychologist at New York's Bellevue Hospital who designed the first intelligence test specifically for adults. Wechsler called the test the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale. Wechsler also devised a test for children called the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children.
Speech comprehension area in the temporal lobe
Established the first psychology laboratory at the Germany, where introspection was used. He focused on inner sensations, images, and feelings, which is known as structuralism.
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