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14 terms

Ch 10 Motivation (Hunger)

STUDY
PLAY
motivation
a need or desire that energizes and directs behavior
instinct
a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
drive-reduction theory
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
homeostasis
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level
incentive
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
hierarchy of needs
maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher-level safety needs and then psychological needs become active. (physiological, safety, belongingness, esteem, self actualization)
A.L. Washburn
inflated a balloon in his stomach, monitored stomach contractions. hunger was felt when stomach contractions occurred.
glucose
blood sugar. a drop in this will signal the brain for hunger.
lateral hypothalamus
If electrically stimulated, well-fed animals begin to eat; if area is destroyed, even starving animals will have no interest in food.
ventromedial hypothalamus
depresses hunger. stimulate: animal will stop eating. destroy:animal's stomach and intestines will process food more rapidly, causing it to become extremely fat.
set point
the point at which an individual's "weight thermostat" is supposedly set. When the body falls below this weight, an increase in hunger an a lowered metabolic rate may act to restore the lost weight
basal metabolic rate
the body's resting rate of energy expenditure
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder in which a normal-weight person diets and becomes significantly underweight, yet, still feeling fat, continues to starve.
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise