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chemical substances in foods that consist of a simple sugar molecule or multiples of them in various forms
carbohydrates that consist of a glucose, fructose, or galactose molecule, or a combination of glucose and either fructose or galactose
a rare genetic disorder related to the lack of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase; causes the essential amino acid phenylalanine to build up in blood
the form of carbohydrate found in starchy vegetables, grains, and dried beans and in many types of dietary fiber
specific types of nondigestible carbohydrates that have beneficial effects on health
naturally occurring, intact forms of nondigestible carbohydrates in plants and "woody" plant cell walls
a condition in which cell membranes have a reduced sensitivity to insulin so that more insulin than normal is required to transport a given amount of glucose into cells
type 2 diabetes
a disease characterized by high blood glucose levels due to the body's inability to use insulin normally or to produce enough insulin
a measure of the extent to which blood glucose is raised by a 50-gram portion of a carbohydrate-containing food compared to 50 grams of glucose or white bread
the disintegration of teeth due to acids produced by bacteria in the mouth that feed on sugar
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