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17 terms

Nutrition Now - Chapter 12

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carbohydrates
chemical substances in foods that consist of a simple sugar molecule or multiples of them in various forms
simple sugars
carbohydrates that consist of a glucose, fructose, or galactose molecule, or a combination of glucose and either fructose or galactose
monosaccharides
simple sugars consisting of one sugar molecule
disaccharides
simple sugars consisting of two molecules of monosaccharides linked together
glycogen
the body's storage form of glucose; stored in the liver and muscles
alcohol sugars
simple sugars containing and alcohol group in their molecular structure
phenylketonuria (PKU)
a rare genetic disorder related to the lack of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase; causes the essential amino acid phenylalanine to build up in blood
complex carbohydrates
the form of carbohydrate found in starchy vegetables, grains, and dried beans and in many types of dietary fiber
polysaccharides
carbohydrates containing many molecules of monosaccharides linked together
functional fiber
specific types of nondigestible carbohydrates that have beneficial effects on health
dietary fiber
naturally occurring, intact forms of nondigestible carbohydrates in plants and "woody" plant cell walls
total fiber
the sum of functional and dietary fiber
insulin resistance
a condition in which cell membranes have a reduced sensitivity to insulin so that more insulin than normal is required to transport a given amount of glucose into cells
type 2 diabetes
a disease characterized by high blood glucose levels due to the body's inability to use insulin normally or to produce enough insulin
glycemic index
a measure of the extent to which blood glucose is raised by a 50-gram portion of a carbohydrate-containing food compared to 50 grams of glucose or white bread
tooth decay
the disintegration of teeth due to acids produced by bacteria in the mouth that feed on sugar
plaque
a soft, sticky, white material on teeth, formed by bacteria