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chemical substances in foods that consist of a simple sugar molecule or multiples of them in various forms

simple sugars

carbohydrates that consist of a glucose, fructose, or galactose molecule, or a combination of glucose and either fructose or galactose


simple sugars consisting of one sugar molecule


simple sugars consisting of two molecules of monosaccharides linked together


the body's storage form of glucose; stored in the liver and muscles

alcohol sugars

simple sugars containing and alcohol group in their molecular structure

phenylketonuria (PKU)

a rare genetic disorder related to the lack of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase; causes the essential amino acid phenylalanine to build up in blood

complex carbohydrates

the form of carbohydrate found in starchy vegetables, grains, and dried beans and in many types of dietary fiber


carbohydrates containing many molecules of monosaccharides linked together

functional fiber

specific types of nondigestible carbohydrates that have beneficial effects on health

dietary fiber

naturally occurring, intact forms of nondigestible carbohydrates in plants and "woody" plant cell walls

total fiber

the sum of functional and dietary fiber

insulin resistance

a condition in which cell membranes have a reduced sensitivity to insulin so that more insulin than normal is required to transport a given amount of glucose into cells

type 2 diabetes

a disease characterized by high blood glucose levels due to the body's inability to use insulin normally or to produce enough insulin

glycemic index

a measure of the extent to which blood glucose is raised by a 50-gram portion of a carbohydrate-containing food compared to 50 grams of glucose or white bread

tooth decay

the disintegration of teeth due to acids produced by bacteria in the mouth that feed on sugar


a soft, sticky, white material on teeth, formed by bacteria

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