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15 terms

Grossman Biology

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genotype
genetic makeup of an organism
phenotype
what an organism looks like as a consequence of its genotype
dominant
the form of a trait that appears to dominate or mask another form of the same trait
recessive
The inherited characteristic often masked by the dominant characteristic and not seen in an organism.
heterozygous
having two different alleles for a trait
homozygous
having two identical alleles for a trait
probability
a measure of how likely it is that some event will occur
test cross
the crossing of an individual of unknown genotype with a homozygous recessive individual to determine the unknown genotype
Punnett Square
diagram showing the gene combinations that might result from a genetic cross
Law of Segregation
members of a pair of homologous chromosomes separate during the formation of gametes and are distributed to different gametes so that every gamete receives only one member of the pair
Law of Independent Assortment
each member of a pair of homologous chromosomes separates independently of the members of other pairs so the results are random
Alleles
different forms of a gene
gene
sequence of DNA that codes for a protein and thus determines a trait
monohybrid cross
a cross between individuals that involves one pair of contrasting traits
true breeding
displaying only one form of a particular trait in offspring