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METC CHEM 101 Unit 4, 5

This set is written for the 'learn' format, it can be used in other formats but it is most effective when set on 'learn'. Hope this can help you out on chem 101 test #2 (unit 4 and 5).
STUDY
PLAY
Cis-trans Isomers
has identical bonding and substituents, only differs in 3-dimenstional arrangement of the substituents in space
Alcohols
classified by the number and/or position of the hydroxyl group
Alkynes
Unsaturated hydrocarbons containing at least one carbon to carbon triple bond
Hydration
A reaction involving the addition of water
Combustion
this reaction produces CO2, H2O and heat
Covalent Bond
Inter-atomic relationship created by the sharing of at least one pair of electrons
Carbon
Must follow the octet rule in order to achieve a stable configuration by sharing four electrons
Unsaturated Hydrocarbon
contain carbon to carbon double or triple bonds
Hydrogen and Halogen
shares one electron with carbon
Aliphatic hydrocarbons
hydrocarbons that contain only Hydrogen and Carbon
Benzene Ring
a ring of six carbon atoms with alternating single and double carbon-carbon bonds
Tertiary Carbon
Carbons that are covalently bonded to three other carbons
Alkanes
Saturated hydrocarbons containing only carbon to carbon single bonds (derivatives of methane)
Monohydric
Alcohol that contains only one -OH group
Tertiary Alcohol
the -OH group is covalently bonded to a tertiary carbon
Esterification; produces ester + H2O
organic acid + alcohol (in the presence of an acid catalyst and heat)
One disulfide molecule
The oxidation of two thiol molecules yields?
Ether + H2O
The dehydration of excess alcohol yields what?
Alkenes
Unsaturated hydrocarbons containing at least one carbon to carbon double bond
Aromatics
Cyclic organic compounds characterized by the presence of at least one 6 carbon benzene ring
Trihydric
Alcohol that contains three -OH groups
Structural Isomerism
Compounds that have identical molecular formulas but different structures
Primary Carbon
Carbons that are covalently bonded to one other carbon
Substituted Hydrocarbon
in which one or more hydrogen atoms are replaced by another atom or group of atoms ( aka functional groups)
Oxygen and Sulfur
shares up to two electrons with carbon
Saturated Hydrocarbon
contains only carbon to carbon single bonds
Organic Chemistry
branch that deals with carbon compounds, including those with no relationship to life.
Structural Formula
type of organic chemistry formula that shows the actual bonding of atoms to each other
Hydrolysis
reverse of esterification, requires heat and acid (H+) to catalyze the reaction (yields an organic acid + alcohol)
Tertiary Alcohol
when oxidized there is no reaction under normal circumstances
Hydrogenation
a reaction involving the addition of hydrogen
Substitution Reaction
This type of reaction is prevalent in benzenes
Molarity
the number of moles of substance dissolved in one liter of solution (ex. M and mol/L)
Molarity
What is this formula used for?
g=(mol/L)(L)(GMW)
Step 1: Identify the formula needed
mg = (mEq/L) (mGEW) (L)
Step 2: Find the mGEW
Ca- 1 x 23.0 = 23.0
Cl- 1 x 35.5 = 35.5
O- 3 x 16 = 48.0
(23.0) + (35.5) + (48.0) = (106.5) =GMW
TPIV- find valence for ClO3, which is [ -1 ] then find the absolute value which is ( 1 )
mGEW = 106.5 / 1 = 106.5 mg/mEq
Step 3: convert mL to L
9mL = 0.009 L
Step 4: Plug in for the knowns
mg = ( 21.0 mEq/L) (106.5 mg/mEq) (0.009 L)
mg = 20.1285
Round
20.1 mg
How much (mg) NaClO3 is needed to prepare 9mL of a 21.0 mEq/L NaClO3 solution? Round to the tenths place.
Step 1: Identify the formula needed
g= (mol/L) (GMW) (L)
Step 2: Convert mL to L
400mL = 0.4L
Step 3: Find the GMW of Na3SO6
Na- 3 x 23.0 = 69.0
S- 1 x 32.1 = 32.1
O- 6 x 16.0 = 96.0
(69) + (32.1) + (96) = 197.1
GMW= 197.1
Step 4: plug in for the knowns
g= (3.00 mol/Eq) (197.1) (0.4L)
236.5g
Determine how many grams of Na3SO6 is needed to prepare 400 mL of a 3.00 mol/L Na3SO6 solution. Round to the tenths place.
Alcohol
Identify the functional group in this formula
CH3CH2OH
Thiol
Identify the functional group in this formula
CH3CH2SH
Ether
Identify the functional group in this formula
CH3CH2OCH3
n-butyl group
This formula represents an ethyl (alkyl) group CH2CH3, what group does this formula represent?
CH2CH2CH2CH3
Prop (3)
Identify which prefix (root) should be used for a 3 carbon chain using IUPAC nomenclature rules.
Hept (7)
Identify which prefix (root) should be used for a 7 carbon chain using IUPAC nomenclature rules.
Secondary Alcohol
What does a ketone yeild in a reduction reaction?
Aldehyde
What type of group yields a primary alcohol upon reduction and an organic acid upon oxidation?
Sulfhydryl group
Some protein properties depend on the presence of this functional group and this group contributes to protein structure and activity?
*this one may be a little tricky
Oxidation (OIL)
loss of hydrogen (or electron) and the gain of an oxygen
Halogenation
this reaction involves the substitution of Hydrogen with one or more Halogens and yields a halogenated alkane
Step 1: identify the formula needed
GEW=GMW/TPIV
Step 2: Find TPIV
common valence of (SO3) is [ - 2 ] multiply this by the subscript (3) and then take the absolute value of the answer
- 2 x 3 = - 6 = 6
TPIV= 6
Step 3: Find the GMW
multiply the number of atoms in each element by there atomic mass
Ca- 3 x 40.1 =120.3
S- 3 x 32.1 = 96.3
O- 9 x 16 = 144.0
(120.3) + (96.3) + (144.0) = 360.6 GMW
Step 4: plug in for the knowns and solve
GEW = 360.6 / 6 = 60.1 g/Eq
60.1 g/Eq
Find the GEW for a Ca3(SO3)3 compound.
11.6 moles
How many moles of solute are there in 4.3 L of a 2.7 mol/L solution?
Step 1: Identify formula needed
#moles = grams/GMW *simplified formula
Step 2: Find GMW of NaSO2
Na- 1 x23.0 = 23.0
S- 1 x 32.1 = 32.1
O- 2 x 16 = 32.0
(23.0) + (32.1) + (32.0) = 87.1g/mol = GMW
Step 3: plug in for the knowns and solve
#moles = 293.0 / 87.1 = 3.3639494483
round = 3.3
3.3 moles
Determine the number of moles contained in a 293.0 grams of NaSO2.
Step 1: Identify the formula
g=(Eg/L)(GEW)(L)
Step 2: Find the GEW of NaCl4
First find the GMW
Na- 1 x 23.0 = 23.0
Cl- 4 x 35.5 = 142.0
(23.0) + (142.0) = 165.0
GMW = 165.0 g/Eg
Find the TPIV of NaCl4
(Cl) common valence of [ - 1 ]
(-1)x subscript (4) = -(4) take the absolute value of (-4), which will end up being (4)
TPIV = 4
GEW = 165.0 / 4= 41.25g/Eq
Step 3: covert mL into L
275mL = 0.275 L
Step 4: Plug in for the knowns and solve
(89.5g) = (Eq/L)(41.25g/Eq)(0.275L)
(89.5g) = (Eq/L)(11.34375)
(89.5) / (11.34375) = (Eg/L)(11.34375) / (11.34375)
Eg/L = 7.889807162534435
ROUND
7.9 Eq/L
Determine the Eq/L concentration of an NaCl4 solution that was prepared by adding 89.5 grams NaCl4 to a 275mL flask. Round to the tenths place.
Dehydration
this reaction type of reaction yields alkene + water in the presence of an acid
Organic acid + alcohol
Name the product of this reaction ESTERIFICATION: ester + water------- (requires heat and an acid catalyst)
Dihydric
Alcohols that contain two -OH groups are classified as?
Carboxylic Acid
What functional group is this?
O=C - OH
Amide
Identify this functional group.
O=C - NH2
(product formed between a carboxylic acid and an amine)
Molecular Formula
A formula used in organic chemistry that states the actual number of each kind of atom found in a molecule
Condensed Formula
Identify this type of organic chemistry formula:
CH3(CH2)2CH3
Secondary Carbon
Carbons that are covalently bonded to two other carbons are classified as what type of carbon?
Nitrogen
This element shares up to three electrons with carbon
Molecular Formula
What type of formula is this?
C4H9O2
Trans-Isomer
Structures with substituents on opposite sides of the carbon ring are called? (across the chain)
Ester
What type of functional group is this?
O=C - O
(compounds formed by the reaction between carboxylic acid and an alcohol)
Amine
Identify the functional group in this condensed formula
CH3NH2
CH2OHCHOHCH2OH
What is the condensed formula for 1,2,3 - Propanetriol?
Step 1: Identify the formula needed
g=(Eq/L)(GEW)(L)
Step 2: Find the GEW of Na(SO4)2
GMW
Na- 1 x 23.0 = 23.0
S- 2 x 32.1 = 64.2
O- 8 x 16 = 128
(23) + (64.2) + (128) = 215.2 g/mol
GMW = 215.2
TPIV
identify the common valence for (SO4), which is [ - 2 ]
Multiply this valence times the subscript (2)
(-2) x (2) = (- 4) take the absolute value of this number, which is (4)
TPIV=4
GEW=GMW/TPIV
GEW=215.2 / 4 = 53.8 g/Eq
Step 2: plug into the formula for the knowns and solve
(64.0g)=(1.9 Eq/L)(53.8 g/Eq)(L)
(64)=(102.22)(L)
(64) / (102.22) = (L) / (102.22)
L = 0.626100567
Step 3: convert L into mL
0.626100567L = 626.100567mL
Round to the nearest tenth
626.1mL
What volume of solution (mL) an be prepared from 64.0 grams of Na(SO4)2 if the desired concentration is 1.9 Eq/L? Round to the nearest tenth.
Step 1: Identify the formula needed
g=(mol/L)(L)(GMW)
Step 2: Calculate GMW for CaCO3
Ca- 1 x 40.1 = 40.1
C- 1 x 12 = 12.0
O- 3 x 16 = 48.0
add (40.1) + (12.0) + (48.0) = 100.1 g/mol
GMW= 100.1
Step 3: Plug in the knowns and solve
(34.0g)=(2.7 mol/L)(L)(100.1g/mol)
(34.0)=(270.27)(L)
(34) / (270.27) = (270.27)(L) / (270.27)
(L)= (34) / (270.27)
L= 0.125800126
Round to the tenths place
0.1 L
What volume (L) of CaCO3 solution can be prepared from 34.0 grams of CaCO3 if a 2.7 mol/L CaCO4 solution is desired? Round to the nearest tenths place
Step 1: identify the formula needed
g = (mol/L)(GMW)(L)
Step 2: Calculate the GMW (including H2O)
Cu- 1 x 63.5 = 63.5
S- 1 x 32.1 = 32.1
O- 4 x 16 = 64.0
H2O- 6 x 18 = 108.0
add (63.5) + (32.1) + (64.0) + (108.0) = 267.6
GMW = 267.6 g/mol
Step 2: covert mL into L
275mL = 0.275 L
Step 3: Plug values into formula and solve
(g)= (3.2 mol/L)(267.6 g/mol)(0.275L)
g= 235.488
round to the tenths place
235.4g
How much CuSO4 * 6HOH is required to prepare 275 mL of a 3.2 mol/L CuSO4 solution? Round to the tenths place
Step 1: Identify the formula needed
g=(Eg/L)(GEW)(L)
Step 2: Find the GEW (include H2O)
GMW
Cu- 1 x 63.5 = 63.5
S- 1 x 32.1= 32.1
O- 4 x 16 = 64.0
H2O- 3 x 18 = 54.0
add (63.5) + (32.1) + (64.0) + (54.0) = 213.6
GMW= 213.6 g/mol
TPIV
find the common valence of (SO4) which is [ - 2 ]
taking the absolute value of this number will be (2)
TPIV= 2
GEW= (213.6) / (2) = 106.8 g/Eq
Step 3: Convert mL into L
600mL= 0.6L
Step 4: Place values into the formula and solve
g=(1.2)(106.8)(0.6)
g=76.896
round to the tenths place
76.9g
Determine how much CuSO4*3H2O is required to prepare 600 mL of a 1.2 Eq/L CuSO4 solution. Round to the tenths place.
Aldehydes
What functional group is this?
O=C - H
Ketone
Identify the functional group in this condensed formula
CH3CH2CH=O