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Unit 1: Intro to Anatomy and Physiology
Terms in this set (111)
the study of the structure (morphology, form) of body parts.
the study of the function of body parts.
Digestive System Functions
receive, breakdown, and absorb food
eliminate unabsorbed material
Major Organs of the Digestive System
mouth, tongue, teeth, salivary glands, pharynx, esophagus, stomach, liver and gallbladder, pancreas, small and large intestines
Major Organs of the Cardiovascular/Circulatory System
heart, arteries, capillaries, veins
Function of the Cardiovascular/Circulatory System
move blood through vessels and transport substances throughout the body
Major Organs of the Respiratory System
nasal cavity, pharynx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
Functions of the Respiratory System
intake and output of air, exchange gases between air and blood
Major Organs of the Lymphatic/Immune System
lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, thymus, spleen
Functions of the Lymphatic/Immune System
return tissue fluid to blood, carry certain absorbed food molecules, defend the body against infection
Major Organs of the Urinary/Excretory System
kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra
Functions of the Urinary/Excretory System
remove waste from blood, maintain water and electrolyte balance, store and transport urine
Major Organs of the Endocrine System
pituitary gland, thyroid gland, parathyroid glands, adrenal glands, pancreas, ovaries, testes, pineal gland, thymus
Functions of the Endocrine System
control metabolic activities of body structures through the release of hormones
Major Organs of the Female Reproductive System
ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus, vagina, clitoris, vulva
Functions of the Female Reproductive System
produce and maintain egg cells, receive sperm cells, support development of an embryo, function in the birth process
Major Organs of the Male Reproductive System
scrotum, testes, epididymides, ductus deferentia, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, bulbourethral glands, urethra, penis
Functions of the Male Reproductive System
produce and maintain sperm cells, transfer sperm cells into female reproductive tract
Major Organs of the Nervous System
brain, spinal cord, nerves, sense organs
Functions of the Nervous System
detect changes, receive and interpret sensory information, stimulate muscles and glands
Major Organs of the Integumentary System
skin, hair, nails, sweat glands, sebaceous glands
Functions of the Integumentary System
protect tissue, regulate body temperature, support sensory receptors
Major Organs of the Skeletal System
bones, ligaments, cartilages
Functions of the Skeletal System
provide framework, protect soft tissue, provide attachments for muscles, produce blood cells
store inorganic salts
Functions of the Muscular System
cause movement, maintain posture,
produce body heat
Major Organs of the Muscular System
Dorsal Cavity (Posterior Aspect)
Cranial cavity and vertebral canal
Contains the brain
Contains the spinal cord
Contains the thoracic, abdominal, and pelvic cavities
Contains the pleural cavities, mediastinum, and pericardial cavity
Contains the lungs
Contains the thymus, esophagus, trachea, and heart (pericardial cavity)
Contains the heart
Separates the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities
Contains the spleen, appendix, stomach, and small intestines
Contains the bladder, reproductive organs, and large intestine
Organs in the abdominopelvic region
Two layered, covers organs
Inner layer of serous membrane
Visceral (lines the organs)
Outer layer of serous membrane
Parietal (lines the cavity)
Lubricating fluid of organs
Lines the lungs
Lines the pleural cavities
Lines the heart
Lines the pericardial cavity
Lines the organs in the abdominopelvic cavity
Lines the abdominopelvic cavity
Makes up molecules
Building blocks of macromolecules
Make up cell organelles
Structures that have a specific function in a cell
The smallest unit of life. These structures make up tissues.
Defined as a group of similar cells that perform a specialized function. Two or more tissues combine to form an organ.
A structure consisting of a group of tissues that performs a specialized function. Two or more organs combine to form an organ system.
A group of organs that act together to carry on a specialized function. There are 11 organ systems. The eleven organ systems collectively form the organism.
The most complex level of organization and is defined as an individual living thing.
A part above another part, or closer to the head
Part that is below another part, or toward the feet
Nearer to front of the body.
After, behind or toward the back
Closer to the origin
Further away from the origin
Toward the midline of body
Toward the sides of body with respect to the imaginary midline
Away from surface of body (inside). Towards the viscera.
Towards the surface of the body
Means outward or near the surface. Used to describe the location of certain blood vessels and nerves.
Lateral and on the same side of body.
Opposite sides of the body.
Lengthwise cut that divides the body into left and right portions.
Refers to a cut that divides the body into superior and inferior portions.
Coronal or Frontal
Refers to a section that divides the body into anterior and posterior portions.
Back of arm
Front of elbow
Back of head
Point of shoulder
Back of knee
Sole of foot
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