129 terms

behavioral neuroscience

chapter 3
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In the opening vignette, Ryan B. undergoes neurosurgery to remove a portion of his _______ in order to treat his worsening epilepsy.
medial temporal lobe
Early anatomists named observable brain features
for the similarity of the structure to everyday objects.
The term "neuraxis" refers to
an imaginary line drawn through the spinal cord up to the front of the brain.
The term "rostral" means
toward the beak or snout.
The term "dorsum" means _______, while the term "ventrum" means _______.
back; belly
Another term for "caudal" is
posterior
Which of the following terms means "above" when referring to the human brain?
superior
Which term below refers to structures that are found on opposite sides of the body?
contralateral
Assume that electrical stimulation of the right motor cortex elicits limb movements on the left side of the body. In this instance, we would describe this as a(an) _______ organization of motor cortex and the muscles of the body.
contralateral
Cross sections that resemble those of a salami and are perpendicular to the neuraxis are
produced by a _______ section of the human brain.
transverse
In which view of the brain would one be able to note the presence of a specific structure in both hemispheres?
frontal
A _______ section is made through the human brain and is parallel to the ground, and a _______ section through the spinal cord is parallel to the ground.
horizontal; transverse
A _______section made perpendicular to the ground and parallel to the neuraxis through a human brain divides the brain into two symmetrical halves.
midsagittal
The _______ is formed by the cranial nerves and spinal nerves plus the peripheral ganglia.
peripheral nervous system
Which of the following is true of fuel used by the brain?
Interruption of blood flow for even a few seconds impairs brain function.
The brain and spinal cord form the
central nervous system.
The _______ is a tough protective sheath that covers the brain and that lies closest to the skull.
dura mater
The _______ is the middle layer of the brain meninges.
arachnoid membrane
In the peripheral nervous system, the _______ and the _______ fuse together to form a single sheath that protects the spinal and cranial nerves and the autonomic ganglia.
dura mater; pia mater
The four hollow and interconnected spaces within the brain form the
ventricles
Which of the following is true of CSF?
CSF flows from the lateral ventricles toward the fourth ventricle.
Brain CSF is secreted by the
choroid plexus
CSF flows from third ventricle to the fourth ventricle via the
cerebral aqueduct.
CSF is reabsorbed into the blood supply via the
arachnoid granulations
Which of the following is correct regarding CSF?
Drainage of CSF would result in compression of brain tissue onto the ventral skull surface.
Interruption of the flow of CSF through the brain ventricles results in
hydrocephalus.
Hydrocephalus is treated by
draining CSF from the ventricles using a shunt
The rostral end of the neural tube at 28 days will eventually form 3 interconnected channels known as the
ventricles
Which of the terms below means "endbrain"?
telencephalon
The _______ consists of the pons and cerebellum.
metencephalon
Which of the following is true of the human cerebral cortex?
The human cortex is about 3 mm in thickness
On the 28th day of embryonic development, the human brain resembles a
hollow tube
Which of the following is true of embryonic neuron formation?
A progenitor cell forms a neuron and another progenitor cell during asymmetrical division
The _______ is the origin of the cells that form the central nervous system
ventricular zone
The _______ extend from the ventricular zone to the pia mater.
radial glia
A key function of apoptosis is to
terminate the formation of new neurons within the developing brain.
Neurons that are formed during embryonic development are likely to die if they do not
form synaptic contacts with other neurons.
Radial glial cells involved in new neuron formation eventually are transformed into
astrocyes
Which of the following supports the notion that brain development can be modified by experiences?
The development of the neural circuits for depth perception require input from both eyes during a critical period.
Human brains are about three times larger than chimpanzee brains when corrected for
body size
Which of the following is true of the evolution of the human brain?
Comparisons of brain size within the primate family require an adjustment for body size.
The process of _______ refers to the production of new neurons.
neurogenesis
Neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus is stimulated by
a learning experience
Which of the following is offered in the textbook as an explanation of the difference in brain size between humans and chimpanzees?
The symmetrical and asymmetrical periods of division are longer in the human brain.
A _______ is a large groove found in the surface of the human cortex.
fissure
A _______ refers to a bulge of tissue located between the adjacent grooves in the surface of the human cortex.
gyrus
A _______ refers to a small groove on the surface of the human cortex.
sulcus
A _______refers to a large bulge located between adjacent grooves on the surface of the human cortex.
gyrus
The cerebral cortex has a grayish-tan appearance because
the cortex contains many cell bodies
The surface of human cortex
is convoluted by grooves and bulges.
Which of the following is a subcortical structure?
Limbic system
The _______ senses send information to primary sensory cortex on the contralateral side of the brain.
vision, audition, somatosensory
The _______ lobe of the cortex contains primary auditory cortex.
temporal
Which of the following would be expected following damage to the cortex that lies just in front of the central sulcus?
difficulty in controlling the muscles of the body
Which cortical lobe contains the primary somatosensory cortex?
parietal
Regions of the cortex that are NOT primarily concerned with sensation or movement are termed the _______ cortex.
association
In which sensory system does sensory information from the left side of the body travel to the left hemisphere?
olfaction
The _______ region of cortex lies buried within a fissure between the _______ and the _______ lobes.
insular; frontal; temporal
Damage to the visual association cortex would be expected to produce
problems in recognizing an object by sight.
The most likely consequence of damage positioned at the junction of the visual, auditory, and somatosensory association cortexes would be
problems in reading or writing.
"Autotopagnosia" involves _______ and is produced by damage to the _______.
problems in naming one's own body parts; left parietal lobe
Damage to left parietal lobe would be expected to produce a persistent difficulty in a. controlling the left arm and leg.
knowing the position of the person's body parts.
The planning and execution of movements is a function performed by the association cortex within the _______ cortical lobe.
frontal
The motor association cortex is located
just rostral to primary motor cortex
Which of the following is true regarding the functions performed by the left and right hemispheres?
The left hemisphere is adept at the analysis of information.
The association regions of the left and right hemispheres are interconnected via axons that travel within the
corpus callosum
Which of the following most accurately describes the general functions performed by the left and right hemispheres?
The right hemisphere is adept in the synthesis of information.
Damage to the ______ would be expected to produce memory disorder.
hippocampus
Damage to the amygdala would be expected to alter
emotion
Which of the following terms and shapes are not a correct match?
fornix; "breast-shaped"
Damage to the basal ganglia would be expected to produce difficulties in
motor movements
The _______ is the key structure of the basal ganglia
caudate nucleus
_______ is controlled, at least in part, by the hypothalamus.
feeding
Damage to the hypothalamus would be expected to produce
changes in eating
Which of the following belong together?
oxytocin; stimulation of milk ejection from the breast
The _______ is considered to be the body's "master gland."
anterior pituitary
The midbrain is comprised of the
tectum and tegmentum
Which of the following terms belong together?
periaqueductal gray matter; pain reactivity
Damage to the substantia nigra would be expected to produce
Parkinson-like motor symptoms
A function attributed to the cerebellum is the
coordination of motor movements
The metencephalon is comprised of the
pons and cerebellum
The pons is located
immediately ventral to the cerebellum
The _______ is the most caudal portion of the brain stem
medulla oblongata
Cessation of respiration would be expected following damage to the
medulla oblongata
The spinal cord is contained within an aperture of the vertebrae called the
spinal foramens
An anesthetic drug injected adjacent to the dura sac surrounding axons of the cauda equina would be expected to deaden pain sensation in the
pelvic region
The white matter in the spinal cord is located _______, whereas that of the brain is located _______.
outside the gray matter; inside the gray matter
The _______ system is the only sensory system for which the cell bodies of the incoming axons are located inside the CNS.
visual
Which of the following is true of the spinal nerves?
The cell bodies of efferent axons lie in the spinal cord gray matter.
_______ axons conduct sensory information toward the brain.
Afferent
_______ axons "bear away from" the brain.
Efferent
The _______ nerve is named for its wandering course in the thoracic and abdominal body cavities.
vagus
The _______ branch of the nervous system is under voluntary, conscious control.
somatic
A key function of the autonomic nervous system includes the control of a. the striatal muscle.
"vegetative" processes
The _______ comprise the autonomic nervous system.
sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions
The motor neurons of the sympathetic nervous system project from the _______ to the _______.
gray matter of the thoracic and lumbar spinal cord; sympathetic ganglia
The transmitter _______ is secreted by the terminal buttons of preganglionic sympathetic fibers, whereas most postganglionic sympathetic fibers secrete _______.
acetylcholine; norepinephrine
The key function(s) of the parasympathetic division of the ANS relate to
activities that increase stored energy within the body.
The _______ is named for its resemblance to a seahorse.
hippocampus
The term _______ refers to structures that are found on the same side of the body.
ipsilateral
In the _______view of the brain, the brain is sliced like a salami.
frontal and or transverse
The _______ comprise three layers that encase the central nervous system.
meninges
The brain and spinal cord comprise the ______ nervous system.
central
In the _______ nervous system, the dura mater and pia mater fuse together to form a single sheath.
peripheral
CSF is secreted by the _______ of the cerebral ventricles.
choroid plexus
CSF flows from third ventricle to the fourth ventricle via the _______.
cerebral aqueduct
The term _______ means "afterbrain."
metencephalon
The adult human brain weighs about _______ grams.
1400
_______ involves genetically-programmed cell death.
Apoptosis
The process of _______ refers to the production of new neurons.
neurogenesis
A _______ refers to a bulge of tissue located between the adjacent grooves in the surface of the human cortex.
gyrus
The _______ cortex receives primary inputs regarding taste.
insular
Persons who have damage to their _______ association cortex would have difficulty in recognizing objects by sight.
visual
The _______ system is comprised of the amygdale, hippocampus, and anterior thalamus.
limbic system
The two halves of the cerebral cortex are interconnected by the _______.
corpus callosum
_______ axons bear toward the brain.
Afferent
A collection of similarly shaped neurons within the central nervous system is termed a _______.
nucleus
The _______ nervous system is responsible for voluntary control over the body muscles.
somatic
_______ is the transmitter secreted from both preganglionic and postganglionic axons of the parasympathetic nervous system.
Acetylcholine
Define the three major sections of the human brain.
The frontal section divides the brain like a salami; the horizontal section is parallel to the ground; and the sagittal section is perpendicular to the ground and parallel to the neuraxis.
Describe two features that function to protect the brain from external injury.
The brain is encased in a layer of bone (the skull). Several layers of meninges form a solid sheath around the brain. The brain floats within a pool of CSF, which cushions the brain against rapid acceleration/deceleration.
Describe the production, circulation, and reabsorption of cerebrospinal fluid.
CSF is produced within the choroid plexus that lines the ventricles. CSF flows from the lateral ventricles through the third ventricle and through the fourth ventricle. CSF is eventually reabsorbed into the blood.
Describe the processes that produce cortical neurons during embryonic development.
Two major processes are involved in brain embryonic development. During symmetrical division, founder cells divide into two cells. During asymmetric division, the founder cells divide into another founder cell and a new neuron. Longer periods of division can produce a larger brain.
Explain the significance of the process of apoptosis for brain development.
The brain overproduces neurons. Apoptosis serves to eliminate neurons that cannot make appropriate synaptic contacts.
Explain the distinction between primary motor cortex, sensory cortex, and association cortex.
Sensory fibers arrive at the primary cortex, and damage to these regions greatly impairs sensory function. The primary motor cortex is most directly involved in motor control. The association cortex serves to integrate signals from various senses.
Describe the primary functions performed by the left and right hemispheres and give an example of each function.
The left hemisphere is specialized for the serial analysis of information while the right hemisphere is adept at the synthesis of information. Reading and writing would be an example of serial analysis, whereas reading a map would be an example of synthesis.
Describe the structures that comprise the limbic system and briefly discuss the function of this system.
The system includes limbic cortex, the amygdala, hippocampus, and the mammillary bodies. Emotional experience and memory are the primary functions of the limbic system.
Describe the structures that comprise the basal ganglia and explain the significance of this system for motor function.
The basal ganglia include the caudate nucleus, the putamen, and the globus pallidus. Damage to this system results in motor movement problems (e.g., Parkinson's disease). Motor symptoms include weakness, tremors, difficulty in starting a movement and limb rigidity. Much of this reflects loss of input from the substantia migra.
Compare and contrast the anatomy and function of the sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system (ANS).
The divisions emerge from different levels of the spinal cord (thoracic and lumbar versus cervical/sacral), the sympathetic fibers terminate in ganglia just outside the spinal cord, use different transmitters (ACh for parasympathetic, ACh and norepinephrine for sympathetic), and show differing functions (parasympathetic is involved in increasing energy stores, sympathetic is involved in energy expenditure).