80 terms



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Study of form/structure of body
-Mother of Medical Science
Anatomy Divisions
Gross: Macroanatomy
Embroyology & Histology: Microanatomy
Gross Anatomy
-Syestematic (descriptive -Topographic (regional)
-Applied (Clinical)
Systematic (descriptive) anatomy
Functional anatomy of realted syestems./organs
Topographic (regional) anatomy
organ/system in realtion to parts/region of and to themselves; also projection of organs/structures on surface: surface anatomy
Applied (Clinical) Anatomy
realated to clinical practice--diagnosis, surgery, radiography,etc
Comparative anatomy
differeces in organ/structure due to species
-often differences related to mode of life of animals
-used in classification (taxonomy)
developmental biology- tissues and organ devolpment
-microscopic structure of tissues and organs
-light and electron microscopy
Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria
a surface, real or imaginery, along which any three points can be connected by a straight line
Median plane
one symmetrical plane through the middle of the animal diving it into two equal halves
Saggital plane
plane that lies parrell to your median plane
away from median plane
closer to median plane
upper part close to top
lower closer to floor
-exists in form of cells intermixed with non protoplasmic interceullar substances to form tissues
-cells to tissues to organs
any part of the body that is organized
-function together as syestem
is an organ with a larger organ the hand which is part of another organ the pectoral limb
-exist in four categories
-eptheilum: surface
-connective tissue: connects things
-muscle: movement
nervous system: signals body to move
-found on surfaces, cells are closely adherent with minimum intercellular substances between them
-some organs are predominantly epithelial: liver, kidney, and pancreas
-endothelium and mesotheulium have similar charcteristics and are therefore classes as epitheal
Connective Tissue CT
ubiquitous and binding
-solid and fluid form
-*main concern is with solid type of CT: with high fibre component
CT components
-amporphous (jelly like) matric in which cells are interspersed
Dense CT
-Collagen: white strong, does not stretch
-Elastic: yellow, thinner than collagen, branch and unite
reticular: very thin, network between cells
Types of CT-Areolar C.T.
little spaces (areola)
loosely arranged, hence mobility in area
collage+ elastic fibres
supportive function
found around many body structures: blood vessels, organs in abs, thorax
EX: those of flat tendons or aponeuroses have fibres arranged in two planes
Types of CT: Dense CT
regular arrangement
densely packed fibres
EX: those of regular tendons and liagaments- unidirectional or parallel, and very tough and dense and of great tensile strength
-superficial--more loose, subcutaneous
-deep: much tougher fibrous sheets
skin dehydration
cause because superficial fascia skin (loose CT) is dehydrated and takes while to return to normal
Superficial Fascia
-subcutis or hyprodermis
-cobweb of areolar CT: loose
-"filler" tissue between skin and underlying structures: space preventing friction between body parts
-site of injection, can accomadate large volumes of fluid medication: hypodermic injection/ subcutaneous injection
-infections spread easily in this tissue
-adipose tissue: accumulation of fat in this fascia occurs- in called panniculus adiposus
Deep Fascia
-tough fibrous sheets under Superficial fascia
-surrounds and breaks muscles into groups
-may be attachments for some muscles
-may be modified: retinacula( thickened parts of deep fascia hold tendons in place)
-impermeable: fluids such as pus spread along them
-specialized solid connective tissue
- gel-like matrix( hyaluronic acid and proteoglycans)
-some spaces in matrix
-may be surrounded by perichondrium (dense C.T.)
- three types
3 types of cartilage
-Hyaline, elastic, fibrocartilage
most rigid form of CT
consist of matrix and cells
bone function
-skelton which supports and gives form to body
-system of levers for movement of one part of the body relative to another, or movement of the entire organism from one place to another
-mineral homesotsais: reserve for Ca, Phosphate, etc
General structure of bone and classification
-long bones :limb bones
-short bones: carpal, vertebral bones
-flat bones: cranial bones
Long bones
humerus, femur, tibia
-Diaphysis (diaphysis)
-proximal and distal ephysisas
-proximal and distal metsaphysis
-epiphyseal plate: plate between metaphysis and the epiphysis
Epiphyseal plate
plate for lenghtining of bone, during the growth plate
bone marrow
-in all bones, filling median cavity and intersititial spaces of spongy bones
-red and yellow bone marrow
epiphysis and metaphysis
-the extremities
-internally occupied by spongy or cancellous bone
- three dimensional, interlacing spicules, plates and tubes of bone, of varying density. give strength to extremities and compression
blood & nerve supply to the bone
generous supply: 5-10 percent cardiac output blood and nerve is going from the heart to bone
Nutrient artery
-largest source of blood
-middle of diaphysis
-runs through an oblique nutrient foramen
-usually directed to one extermity
other arties
epiphyseal artieries
metaphyseal artieres
-between nutrient and metaphyseal artiery
-blood supply to shaft of long bone has excellent collaterial circulation
- if artery is destroyed the nutrient artery can supply missing blood and visa versa
thin walled, accompany arties ,cortical capillaries drain into venules within the periosteum
lymphatic vessels
no lymphatic vessels in the bone
-nerves accompany the larger vessels
short bones
- no ephysieal cartilage
width and length not different
compact bone externally
cancellous bone internally
no medullary cavity
Flat Bones
-two major surfaces
-two flat sheets of compact bone
-thin layer of cancellous bone between the compact bones
EX: most skull bones, pelvic girdle, scapula
Speciliazed bones -sesamoid bones
: in tendons where sudden change of direction or great friction occurs
over prominences of bone: devolp bone equal to strength of long bone
-usually at synovical joints, against major bones
EX: patella
passes permantely bony surfaces
stronger than bones
Splanchinic bones
in soft tissue, away from skelton
EX: OS penis
Pneumatic bones
skull bones: invasion of diploe of certain skull bones by nasal mucosa
-postcranial bones of the skull of birds also air filled
-Specilaized for contraction
-pumping blood
-generation of heart- involuntary tremors in cold
Variety of Muscle
Skeletal muscle: our major concern
Cardiac Muscle: specialized: heart wall muscle
-Smooth Visceral Muscle: found in blood vessels and viscera EX: gut, tubular, genitalia, respiratory tract
Skeletal Musckle
Straited, somatic, voluntary muscle
-req stimulation from nerves to contract
-bulk of body muscles
Muscle Structure
-each cell is known as Fibre
-long fibre:
sarcoplemma--cell membrane
sarcoplasmic retikculum--smooth ER
sarcomere---functional unit
muscle arrangement
as fibres: surrounded by endomyicum
as bundles surrounded by perimycium
as whole muscles surrounded by the epimycium
- these three converings fuse at the end of the main muscle (belly) to form a tendon
General Muscle Shape
spindle-shaped, with a HEAD, BELLY (VENTER), and TAIL
arrangement of muscle fibers
various ways:
-strap like muscles: fibers are parallel,long
-Penneat muscles: fibers attach to their tendons at an angle
-tendons of insertion are long
-bellies of muscle are closer to the body trunk
smallest unit of muscle
Muscle Fiber arrangement 2
muscle units or groups are sepearated by an intermediate tendon
-some muscle arise by more than one head EX: biceps, triceps, quadriceps
have common tendon of insertion
Functional Peculiarties of Muscles
-muscle does not pass through joint with activiating it
Add: towards
those assiting one another
those opposing or counteracting
reduction of angle of articulation
increase of angle of articulation
limbs away from median plane
limbs toward median plane
lifts part relative to other part(s)
advance cranially
pulls part caudally
movement of the dorsal surface of limb to a dorsal postion
movement of palmar/plantar surface of the limb to a dorsal position
dense fibrous CT (collagen) by which muscles are attached to bones
-variable length
-may be flat or broad
-muscle have apneuroses(flat tendon) for the support of abdominal viscera
-may have sesamoid bone
-may have fluid filled cushion over a hard surface
fleshy attachment
some muscles appear to attach directly to bone
synovial bursa
if tendon on ine surface only
tendon sheath
if greater part of tendon circumference is at risk, sheath wraps around tendon
may devolp where excessive friction occurs
Blood Supply to Muscle
-high amount
-one or more artieries
-anatomoses, but not efficient/effective
-veins are satellites of artieries
-tendons are realtively avascular hence slow healing
Nerve Supply to muscle
-muscle carry with them the nerves of the somite(s) from which they devolp
-as it is with blood vessels which they accompany, they pass through, and branch within the CT tissue sepate of the muscles