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CH. 5 Milady


acquired immune deficiency syndrome, a disease that breaks down the body's immune system, is caused by HIV

Acquired Immunity

immunity that the body develops after overcoming a disease, through inoculation or through exposure to natural allergens


Reaction due to extreme sensitivity to certain foods, chemicals, or other normally harmless substances


Chemical germicides formulated for use on skin; registered and regulated by the FDA


showing no symptoms or signs of infection


short rod-shaped bacteria, most common bacteria and produce diseases such as tetanus, typhoid fever, tuberculosis and diptheria


one-celled microorganisms that have both animal and plant characteristics


capable of destroying bacteria

Binary Fission

the division of bacteria cells into two new daughter cells


number of viable organisms in or on an object or surface or the organic material on a surface or object before decontamination or sterilization

Bloodborne Pathogens

disease causing microorganisms carried in the body by blood or body fluids

Chelating Soaps

detergents that break down stubborn films and remove the residue of pedicure products


mechanical process using soap and water to remove all visible dirt and debris


round-shaped bacteria that appear singly or in groups

Contagious Disease

a.k.a communicable disease, disease that is spread from one person to another


the presence or the reasonably anticipated presence, of blood or other potentially infectious materials on an item's surface or visible debris or residue


the removal of blood or other potentially infectious material on an item's surface and the removal of visible debris and residue


determination of the nature of a disease from it's symptoms


spherical bacteria that grow in pairs and cause diseases such as pneumonia

Direct Transmission

transmission of blood or body fluids through touching, kissing, coughing, sneezing, or talking


an abnormal condition of all or part of the body, or its systems or organs, that makes the body incapable of carrying on normal function


Chemical products that destroy all bacteria, fungi, and viruses but not spores


chemical process that uses specific products to destroy harmful organisms on environmental surfaces but not spores


the ability to produce an effect

Exposure Incident

contact with nonintact skin, blood, body fluids or other potentially infectious material that is the result of an employee's duties


slender, hairlike extensions used by bacilli and spirilla for locomotion, a.k.a cilia


microscopic plant parasites which can produce contagious diseases


capable of destroying fungi


bloodborne virus that causes disease and can damage the liver

Hospital Disinfectants

Disinfectants that are effective for cleaning blood and body fluids


Human immunodeficiency Virus, virus that causes AIDS


Human Papilloma Virus, a.k.a Plantar Warts, a virus that can infect the bottom of the foot and resembles small black dots, usually in clustered groups


the ability of the body to destroy and resist infection

Indirect Transmission

transmission of blood or body fluids through contact with an intermediate contaminated object


the invasion of body tissues by disease causing pathogens

Infection Control

methods used to eliminate or reduce the transmission of infectious organisms


caused by or capable of being transmitted by infection

Infectious Disease

disease caused by pathogenic microorganisms that enter the body


condition in which the body reacts to injury, irritation or infection, characterized by redness, heat, pain and swelling

Local Infection

an infection such as a pimple or abscess, that is confined to a particular part of the body and appears as a lesion containing pus


Material Safety Data Sheet, information compiled by the manufacturer about product safety, including the names of hazardous ingredients, safe handling and use procedures, precautions to reduce the risk of accidental harm or overexposure, and flammability warnings


methicillin-resistant staphylococus aureus, a type of infectious bacteria that is highly resistant to conventional treatments such as antibiotics


any organism of microscopic or submicroscopic size


a type of fungus that affects plants or grows on inanimate objects, but does not cause human infections in the salon




reusable, items that can be cleaned, disinfected and used on more than one person, even if the item is accidentally exposed to blood or body fluids

Mycobacterium Fortuitum

microscopic germ that normally exists in tap water in small numbers

Natural Immunity

immunity that is partly inherited and partly developed through healthy living


harmless microorganisms that may perform useful functions and are safe to come in contact with since they do not cause disease or harm


an item that is made or constructed of a material that has no pores or openings and cannot absorb liquids

Occupational Disease

illness resulting from conditions associated with employment, such as prolonged and repeated exposure to certain products or ingredients


Organisms that grow, feed and find shelter on or in another organism while contributing nothing to the survival of that organism

Parasitic Disease

disease caused by parasites


Harmful microorganisms that can cause disease or infection in humans when they invade the body

Pathogenic Disease

disease produced by organisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites

Phenolic Disinfectants

powerful tuberculocidal disinfectants, they are a form of formaldehyde. have a very high pH, and can damage the skin and eyes


made or constructed of a material that has pores or openings, absorbent


a fluid created by infection


quaternary ammonium compounds, disinfectants that are very effective when used properly in the salon


chemical process for reducing the number of disease causing germs on cleaned surface to a safe level


contagious skin disease that is caused by the itch mite, which burrows under the skin

Single Use

Disposable, items that cannot be used more than once, cannot be properly cleaned or is damaged by cleaning and disinfecting

Sodium Hypochlorite

common household bleach, an effective disinfectant for the salon


spiral or corkscrew-shaped bacteria that cause diseases such as syphilis and Lyme disease


pus-forming bacteria that grow in clusters, causes abscesses, pustules and boils


the process that completely destroys all microbial life including spores


pus forming bacteria arranged in curved lines resembling a string of beads, causes infections such as strep throat and blood poisoning

Systemic Disease

disease that affects the body as a whole often due to under or over functioning of internal glands or organs, this disease is carried through the blood stream or lymphatic system

Tinea Barbae

barbers itch, superficial fungal infection that commonly affects the skin, primarily limited to the bearded areas of the face and neck or around the scalp

Tinea Capitis

fungal infection of the scalp characterized by red papules, or spots, at the opening of the hair follicles

Tinea Pedis

ringworm fungus of the foot


various poisonous substances produced by some microorganisms

Tuberculocidal Disinfectants

Disinfectants that kill the bacteria that causes tuberculosis


A disease caused by bacteria that are transmitted through coughing or sneezing

Universal Precautions

set of guidelines published by OSHA that require the employer and the employees to assume that all human blood and body fluids are infectious for bloodborne pathogens


capable of destroying viruses


parasitic submicroscopic particle that infects and resides in cells of biological organisms, capable of replication only through taking over the host cell's reproductive function

State Regulatory Agencies

protect salon professionals and protect consumers, health, safety, and welfare while they receive salon services

Occupational Safety and Health Administration

created as part of the U.S. Department of Labor


Hazard Communication Standard, requires that chemical manufacturers and importers assess and communicate the potential hazards associated with their products


Environmental Protection Agency, registers all types of disinfectants sold and used in the United States

Examples of State Regulatory Agencies

licensing agencies, state boards of cosmetology, commissions and health departments


Statutes, written by federal and state legislatures that determine the scope of practice and guidelines for regulatory agencies to make rules

Rules and Regulations

more specific than laws, determine how the law must be applied, establish specific standards of conduct and can be changed/updated frequently, cosmetologists must comply

4 Types of potentially harmful organisms

Bacteria, Viruses, Fungi, Parasites

Nonpathogenic Bacteria uses

To make yogurt, cheese and some medicines. In the body they help break down food, protect against infection and stimulate the immune system

Life Cycle of Bacteria

Active Stage and Inactive or Spore-Forming Stage

Active Stage

bacteria grow and reproduce, divide into two cells, which are produced every 20-60 minutes depending on the bacteria

Inactive Stage

bacteria become spores to withstand unfavorable conditions until favorable conditions are restored then they become active once again

Most common way infections spread in the salon

Dirty Hands

Difference between viruses and Bacteria

bacteria can live and reproduce on their own and bacterial infections can be treated with antibiotics, whereas viruse need a host to live and reproduce and are resistant to all antibiotics

Hepatitis B

health authorities recommend that service providers receive this vaccine

Cutting living skin

outside the scope of cosmetology

Decontamination Method 1

Cleaning then disinfecting with an appropriate EPA-registered disinfectant

Decontamination Method 2

Cleaning and then sterilizing

3 ways to clean your tools or implements

Washing with soap and water, using an ultrasonic unit, using a cleaning solvent


requires sterilization of nonporous manicure and pedicure tools and implements before each service


Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


must be tested weekly to ensure they are properly sterilizing implements as is required by the CDC, this is called a Spore Test

Contact Time

amount of time the surface must stay moist with disinfectant in order to be effective


Accelerated Hydrogen Peroxide, disinfectant recently approved by the EPA to be used in salons, it's based on stabilized hydrogen peroxide and only needs to be changed every 14 days, nontoxic to the skin and environment


to be used as a disinfectant: must contain at least 5% sodium hypochlorite and be diluted in a 10% solution (1 part bleach to 9 parts water)

Proper disinfection of whirlpool pedicure spa

requires that the disinfecting solution circulate for 10 minutes unless otherwise specified on disinfectant label

2 Disinfectants not suitable for use in salons

Fumigants, Glutaraldehyde


gaseous substance capable of destroying pathogenic bacteria, taken of the market due to releasing low concentrations of formaldehyde gas, can cause eye, nose, and lung irritation


powerful chemical used to sterilize surgical instruments in hospitals, produces fumes that are irritating to the lungs, eyes and skin, not safe for salon use

Incorrect mix ratio

adding water to disinfectant, causes foaming

Disinfectant Containers

must be covered but not airtight

Multiuse Tools and Implements must be

disinfected before and after every use, even if being used on the same person

Doorknobs and Handles

Clean daily to reduce transferring germs

Additives, Powders and Tablets

Do not replace proper cleaning and disinfection (Chloramine T)

Bar Soaps

Grow bacteria

Benzalkonium Chloride

ingredient in antiseptics that is less drying to the skin than alcohol

Exposure Incident Steps

Stop the service, put on gloves, stop the bleeding, use antiseptic on cut and bandage, clean and disinfect workstation and tools/implements, discard all single-use items, remove gloves and put in contaminated waste container

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