A flammable oil-based substance that they would put in pots and throw on ships (Could NOT be put out by water; instead, had to be put out by sand or dirt)
Explain how the Byzantine Empire had wise diplomacy.
They married foreign powers to make alliances (If they sent a prince to marry a princess in A, they would tell B that C was planning to attack them. Then they would tell C that B was going to attack them, and they both would be neutralized)
_____was the basis of English and U.S. laws.
Corpus Jurias Civilis
Who were two emperors in the Roman Empire who reformed?
Constantine and Diocletian
____was the emperor who split the Roman Empire in two.
Diocletian's top priority as emperor was ____.
What were two accomplishments of Diocletian?
Drives barbarians out of empire; individual freedom becomes secondary; wanted wages and prices to be controlled, but ultimately fails
Name three accomplishments of Constantine/
Unites empire again; becomes sole emperor; moves capital from Rome to Byzantium, which later becomes Constantinople
What is Constantinople modernly called?
True or False: "byzantine" politics are good.
False: They are bad
Why did the Byzantine Empire have a strong government?
It was centralized with a strong emperor (autocrat); revised laws; well paid, loyal officials to carry out policies; clever diplomacy (arranged marriages and kept neighbors fighting each other)
True or False: Constantinople was a peninsula.
What is a centralized government?
Government where all of the jobs of the government are done in one place.
The United States is a ____ government.
Rome was a ____ government.
Why did the Byzantine Empire have a strong economy?
Diversified (agriculture, manufacturing, trading); location (Dardanelles, Sea of Marmara, Bosporus, Black Sea); taxed imports; captured silk industry
Constantinople was in a good location because it was between what two straits and two seas?
Dardanelles (strait), Bosporus (strait), Black Sea, and Sea of Marmara
What is a mosaic?
Picture or design made from small pieces of enamel, glass, or stone
What would a religious figure have in a mosaic?
Halo (circle around head); white tunic
What would an emperor have in a mosaic?
Halo; cross on head; purple clothing; pendulia on crown; red shoes; scrolls, scepter, or bible
What are pendulia?
Jeweled ornaments that would hang from an emperor's crown
What would an official have in a mosaic?
White tunic with purple
Why was location important in a mosaic?
The higher up a person was the more important that person was
How were feet supposed to be in a mosaic?
Downward, as if floating
How would the bodies look in a mosaic?
How were the facial expressions in a mosaic?
Reserved, with no extreme emotions (showed a control over emotions)
What is a tablion?
Badge of office in the form of a richly woven or embroidered patch of cloth applied to garments.
What is a heretic?
Person who has committed heresy
What was the West's view on icons?
They allowed them due to the fact that most people in the West were illiterate, and the icons portrayed religious beliefs that they otherwise would not have obtained
What was the East's view on icons?
They condemned icons due to the belief that it was the same as worshiping an idol.
Who was head of the church in the West?
Who was head of the church in the East?
Patriarch of Constantinople
What action was taken by leaders in the East regarding icons?
Emperor Leo III ordered the destruction of icons.
What was the action taken by leaders in the West regarding icons?
Decided banning icons is heresy and threaten Emperor Leo III with excommunication.
What is heresy?
Acts that go against the beliefs of the church
What is excommunication and how was it bad?
Making a person unable to participate in church; it made people think you did something bad and affected your social and economical status
Who were in the clergy?
Pope, patriarchs, bishops, priests
Who were in the the secular class?
Wealthy and common people
What was the West's opinion on the trinity?
Believed it was equal
What was the East's opinion of the trinity?
Believed father is supreme
On the issues that the west and east disagreed on, what was the West's view for each one?
No married priests allowed; veneration accepted; Pope was supreme authority; accepted view that the Holy Spirit was equal
On the issues that the west and east disagreed on, what was the East's view for each one?
Married priests allowed; veneration initially rejected, later accepted; rejected supremacy of Roman Pope over local leaders; supremacy of father in trinity
What name does the West give their church after 1054 A.D.?
Roman Catholic Church
What name does the East give their church after 1054 A.D.?
Eastern Orthodox Church
What language did the Eastern Orthodox Church have?
What language did the Roman Catholic Church have?
What does Catholic mean?
What does Orthodox mean?
What were the reasons the church split, in order.
Leadership issue, equality of trinity, veneration of icons, marriage of priests
Who had more icons, the West or the East?
East (this was ironic)
What is the greatest form of Byzantine architecture?
Hagia Sophia means what?
How many years after the Nika Revolt was the Hagia Sophia completed?
What shape was the Hagia Sophia built in?
The shape of a cross
Describe the layout of the Hagia Sophia? (Ex. Round, rectangular...)
Round dome constructed over rectangular building
The Hagia Sophia was converted to a what by whom?
Mosque, Ottoman Turks
What did the Ottoman Turks add to the Hagia Sophia?
Name all of the events, in chronological order, that led to the downfall of the Byzantine Empire?
Justian's death (civil wars broke out); outside invaders (Slavs, Avars, Persians, Lombards); Islamic found (by Seljuq Turks, who were Asia Nomadic people); Seljuq Turks conquer Asia Minor; Ottoman Turks conquer Constantinople
What is the time people called where the Western Empire helps the East?
What is an icon?
Holy Picture of Jesus, the Virgin Mary, or a Saint.