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Middle Ages, Renaissance, and Baroque
Terms in this set (57)
Official music of Roman Catholic Church. Originally no notation system, but it was developed, just over a course of several centuries. Includes neumes (notes) and a 4 line staff with no measure lines.
Medieval dance music. Triple meter with strong beat for dancing. Notates as chant, only a single melody line. Performers probably improvised accompaniment.
Roman Catholic church texts that remain the same from day to day throughout most of the year: Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei
Piece for several solo voices set out to a short poem, usually about love. Extensive use of text painting and intended for amateurs. Originated in Italy.
Piece for single soloist and an orchestra.
Piece for small group of soloists (soli) and orchestra (tutti).
Text changes for specific days. Introit, Gradual, Alleluia, Offertory, and Communion.
Polyphonic compostition. Written for groups of voices and instruments.
Main theme. Presented initially in imitation and usually on a tonic note. Each voice enters after previous voice has completed presenting the subject.
Melodic material different from the subject occurring at the same time.
Transitional periods between presentations of the subject.
The second voice that presents the subject on a dominant note.
Section at the end of the Fugue where the subject is played faster and in shorter intervals, creating excitement.
Fugue Pedal Point
A sustained bass note.
The melody is turned upside down, so if it's up a third, it will invert and jump down a third.
The subject's pitches in reverse order.
When the rhythms (not the tempo) are stretched out and slowed down or lengthened in some way.
When the notes/rhythm (not the tempo) are sped up and shortened in some way.
Song for solo voice and accompaniment, usually expressing an emotional state through its out-pouring of melody.
Da Capo Aria
A ternary or A-B-A form that brings back the first section with embellishments improvised by the soloist.
Vocal line that imitates the rhythms and pitch fluctuations of speech
Recitative with dry accompaniment (very little)
Recitative that uses orchestral accompaniment to dramatize the text
A short melody in the bass that is constantly repeated
Drama (serious, comic, or both) sung to orchestral accompaniment using costumes and scenery. First public one in 1637.
Prelude before act I of an opera.
Hymn tune with German text. Congregation participated in singing these.
Multi-Movement church work for chorus, soloists, duets, and orchestra.
Large-scale work for chorus, soloists, and orchestra. Contains arias, recitatives, ensemble. No acting, scenery, or costumes. Based on biblical stories.
"otherworldly" sound-basis of Gregorian Chant
Frequently used in first and last movements of concert and concerto grosso. Theme repeatedly present in fragments and contrast between solo sections and tutti.
A bass part written out in full and accompanied by numbers to indicate the chords to be played
Abrupt changes of dynamic level (loud then soft)
Text of an Opera
A major self-contained part of a symphony or sonata
Without musical accompaniment
Character of the music matches the meaning of the words
Council of Trent
Addressed the role of music in worship. Some advocated a return to monophonic but finally decided on non-theatrical worship music.
Nobles from Southern France that wrote poems/songs for court use about love, Crusades, and dancing
Nobles from Northern France that wrote poems/songs for court use about love, Crusades, and dancing
Traveling medieval poet and musician who sang or recited while accompanying himself on a stringed instrument
Earliest form of polyphony and included additional lines in parallel motion. Extended to 2 lines of melody.
School of Notre Dame
Where much of the early polyphony was composed in 12th and 13th centuries. Extended to 2-4 lines of melody.
Style of polyphony that used secular melodies, advanced rhythms (duple and triple), and new notation including time signatures.
Middle Ages Instrument Use
Music primarily vocal and sacred, with instruments rarely used in church. Strings, winds, and percussion used
Renaissance Instrument Use
Vocal (a cappella) more than instrumental still, but if instruments were present, they'd double a vocal party. Brass, strings, winds, and percussion used.
Melodic style with many notes per syllable
Melodic style with 1-2 Notes for 1-2 Syllables
Melodic style with two to four notes set to each syllable.
Middle Ages Characteristics
Emphasis on sacred subjects, church dominates musical activity, visual arts, primarily vocal music in gregorian chant, and monophonic melody.
Vocal more than instrumental still, word painting/text painting, primarily polyphonic texture, and fuller sound with expanded pitch range.
Expresses mood per piece of movement and uses different movements to create contrast, patterns are repeated throughout, opening melody heard again and again, use of church modes gives way to use of major/minor scales.
Secular vs. Sacred
Separate from religion vs. having everything to do with religion
Guillaume de Machaut
Middle Age composer also famous as a poet. Wrote both sacred and secular music, best known for his Notre Dame Mass.
Renaissance composer who worked during and after the Council of Trent and wrote music meeting demands of the Trent and his music became the model for mass composers.
Baroque Italian composer nicknamed "red priest" who taught music at a girls' school in Venice and wrote sacred and secular music, both vocal and instrumental. Best known for concerto grossi and solo concertos for violin.
The Baroque Orchestra
Instrumental music becomes equal to vocal music and is based on violin family of instruments. Small by modern standards and was a combo. of strings winds, brass, and percussion (timpani). Nucleus was basso continuo unit and composers specify instrumentation.