20 terms

West Hills High School DNA & Genetics

Mrs. McDowell genetics DNA West Hills High School biology
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DNA
deoxyribonucleic acid

a molecule that holds the instructions for specific traits

the "molecule of life"
gene
small section of DNA

a "recipe" for a single trait
phenotype
physical appearance

example: blue eyes
sex chromosomes
chromosome pair #23

determines gender

XX = female, XY = male
heterozygous
Qq, Rr, Aa
Gregor Mendel
"father of genetics"

studied heredity of peas
autosome
chromosome pairs #1-#22
nucleus
part of the cell that contains the DNA
homozygous recessive
qq, rr, aa
genotype
"type of genes"

examples: AA, Aa, aa
dominant trait
trait that is always expressed when present

can "hide" a recessive allele
recessive trait
trait that can be "hidden" or "masked" in a carrier by a dominant allele
trait
a characteristic, such as a physical feature, that is genetically determined
chromosome
DNA is "packaged" into these X shaped structures

humans have 46 (23 from mom, 23 from dad)
genetics
the field of biology that studies heredity
heredity
passing on of physical traits from parent to offspring
genetic variation
genetic differences in a population
(both among / within a species and between different species)
homozygous dominant
QQ, RR, AA
allele
alternate form of a gene

example: allele T = tall & allele t = short
punnett square
a type of grid used to show alleles of each parent and the possible genotypes & phenotypes of their offspring