7th Grade Unit 2 Vocabulary- CELLUAR BIOLOGY

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Terms in this set (...)

Active Transport
The movement of ions to molecules across a cell membrane from lower to higher concentration with energy input.
Asexual Reproduction
Reproduction involving only one parent. (Ex: Flowers)
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
A high-energy molecule found in every cell. It supplies energy to the cell.
Binary Fission
A form of reproduction in which the cell grows and splits into two separate parts. A form of asextual reproduction.
Carbohydrates
Any class of organic compounds. (Includes sugar and starch)
Cell
The smallest unit of an organism, contains organelles that perform simple life processes.
Cell Cycle
The process of reproduction in a cell.
Cell Membrane
The membrane or wall surrounding a cell.
Cell Theory
A scientific theory stating all living things are made of cells.
Cell wall
The definite boundary protecting a cell. Helps support the cell membrane.
Cellular Respiration
The oxidation of organic compounds which takes place inside the mitochondria.
Centriole
A small cylindrical organelle in a cell that helps with binary fission.
Centromere
The point that a cell is attached to another cell during the last moments of binary fission.
Chlorophyll
A green pigment in all green plants and cyanobacteria that helps with photosynthesis by absorbing sunlight.
Chloroplast
An organelle in the plant cell contains chlorophyll and absorbs sunlight.
Chromatids
One of the two chromosomes strands that splits during cell division.
Chromosome
Genes that carry information to offspring during sexual reproduction (x and y for humans)
Cytokinesis
The division of the cell cytoplasm after the division of the nucleus.
Cytoplasm
The gel-like substance that all the organelles float in. Can carry nutrients.
Diffusion
The lingering of molecules in a certain area.
Endocytosis
The transport of solid matter or liquid into the cell.
Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
a branch of tubes and sacs going through the cell.
Enzymes
Various proteins in the cell that produce chemical changes.
Eukaryotic
A special type of cell with membrane-bound organelles.
Exocytosis
The transport of solid matter or liquid into the cell.
Fermentation
The chemical breakdown of substance by bacteria and Yeasts.
Golgi Complex
A cytoplasmic organelle that releases waste outside the cell.
Homeostasis
Ability or tendency to maintain internal stability in an organism.
Homologous
Organs that have the same position and structure but not necessarily function.
Interphase
The resting phase between division of cells.
Lipids
Any class of organic compounds including fatty acids and oils.
Metabolism
The chemical processes that occur within an organism to maintain life.
Mitochondria
The organelle in the cell that produces energy by combining organic compounds, water, and oxygen.
Mitosis
The usual method of cell division.
Multicellular
Any organism that contains more than one cell.
Nucleic acid
The acid in the nucleus that carries DNA and RNA.
Nucleolus
The rounded body of the nucleus.
Nucleus
The central part of the cell that performs all functions period can be described as the brain of the cell.
Organelles
Organ like structures within the cell that each have their own specific function to help the cell stay alive.
Osmosis
The tendency of a fluid to pass through the cell membrane.
Passive Transport
The move of molecules across a cell membrane without energy input.
Photosynthesis
The complex process by which plants and some animals make their own food by absorbing sunlight and adding nutrients from the soil and water to make starch for food.
Prokaryotic
Any cellular organism that has no nuclear membrane and no organelles but Ribosomes.
Proteins
The plant or animal tissue rich in such molecules.
Ribosome
A small organelle that is involved in making protein.
Sexual Reproduction
Reproduction involving two parents.
Stimulus
An external change in the environment that can be detected by an organism.
Unicellular
An organism that is comprised of only one cell.
Vacuole
Storage bubbles in the cell that store food, water, and waste.
Vesicle
A fluid or air-filled cavity or sac.