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EC- 6 English Langauge Arts and Reading vocabulary and information.


A learning stratefy that young children frequently use to replicate someone's behaviors, actions, phrases, ect.


The study of the sound system of a langauge.


Basic units of sound.


Letters that represent phonemes. ex. Through (7 letters that make up only 3 sounds /th,r,u/)


The study of the structure of words and word formations.


The smallest representation of meaning. Ex. CARS (2 morphemes basic word, CAR and plural morpheme S)


Entails the ways in which words are organized and arranged in a language.

Kernel Sentences

Basic sentence structures are referred to as?

Intransitive Verb

Designating a verb or verb construction that does not require or cannot take a direct object, as snow or sleep.

Predicate Nominative

A noun or pronoun that follows a linking verb and refers to the same person or thing as the subject of the verb.


Refers to the vocabulary of a language.


regers to the way that meaning is conveyed in a language through the use of its vocabulary.

Connotation and denotation

used in a langauge to convey meaning.


Refers to the implies meaning of words and ideas.

Idiomatic expressions

are one example of how its use implies meaning as a communication tool.

English Langauge Learners



The specific grammatical, syntactic, and structural character of a given language and culture.


Teachers must also provide a description of the ___, especially in regards to their intended meaning to allow students to fully understand their use. This should be taught especially to ELLs.


Refers to the literal meaning of words and ideas.


Describes how context can affect the interpretation of communication.

Babbling or Pre Langauge Stage

(0-6 months) use reflexive crying to communicate with caregivers.

Holophrastic One Word Stage

(11-19 months) Children at this stage begin imitating inflections and facial expressions of adults.

Two Word Stage

(13-24 months) Children begin producing redumentary types of phrases.


Refers to words that can be used to accomplsh multiple functions, ie no, up, all, see.


Contains words that are generally used to refer to one concept.

Telegraphic Stage

(18-27 months) Represents a higher degree of linguistic development in which the child goes beyond the 2 word stage.

Content Words

High Semantic value that can be used in multiple situations.

Function Words

Such as prepositions and articles are very limited at the telegraphic stage because they do not convey as much information as content words.

200- 300 words

Ages 2 to 3 have how many words in their linguistic repertoire.


Vocabulary grows to ____ by age 3.


Vocabulary at age 4.


Age 5 vocabulary


First a teacher needs to determine if the speech of the child is ___ and can be understood by native speakers with minimum effort.

Word Stress

A type of interference can be caused by the application of incorrect ____ in English.


plays an important role in the way people communicate orally and written form.


Allows speakers the option of deviating from the main topic without being penalized.

First Language


Second Langauge


sticks to the topic, builds support for the subject, speaks clearly, takes turns and waits to talk.

first 4 in the speaking checklist.

Talks so others in the group can hear, speaks smoothly, uses courteous langauge, presents in an organized and interesting way.

5-8 in the speaking checklist.

Supports the topical thesis, answers questions effectively, is comfortable speaking publicly.

9-11 in the speaking checklist.

Maintains listeners' interest, volunteers to answer in class.

12 and 13 on the speaking checklist.

Texas Education Agency

TEA stands for what?

No Child Left Behind

NCLB stands for what?

Texas Observation Protocal

TOP stands for what?

Communication Disorder

occurs when a person's speech interferes with his of her abilitiy to convey messages during interactions with community members.

Voice, flency, articulation, and langauge processing.

four classifications of langauge disorders.


Disorder describes any kind of abnormality in the vibration of the vocal fold.


disorder describes abnormalities created when sound passes through the vocal tract.


is characterized by mulitple false starts of the inability to produce the intended sounds.


occurs when children try to communicate in an excessively fast mode that makes comprehension difficult.


A term used when chilren produce the sound /s/,/sh/z and ch/ with thei tongue between the upper and lower teeth.

Language Processing Disorders

generally caused by a brain- based disturbance called aphasia.

Dramatic Play

students are given opportunites to role-play by resembling real life situations.

Langauge Play

involves the use of langauge in rhyme, alliteration, songs and repeating patterns to amuse children.

Show and Tell

Children bring artifacts and personal items to class and describe its features to the class.

Pair Interview

children learn information from each other and then report their findings to the larger group.

Phonemic Awareness

The basic linguistic principle required to develop an understanding of oral and written communication.


refers to the ability to concepptualize and separate words into their basic pronunciation components, which are syllables.


simplifying a word into the pronunciation breakdown.


a technique used to emphasize phnemes by using successive words that begin with the same sound of letter.

Intonation Patterns

describes the pitch contour of a phrase or a sentence that is used to change the meaning of the sentence.

Alphabetic Principle

Described as the ability to connect letters with sounds, and to create words based on these associations.

Pre Alphabetic Phase

Not connecting the letters and sounds of the logo.

Partial Alphabetic Phase

Child is exposed to the alphabetic song and ABC blocks.

Full Alphabetic Stage

Child is making connections between the letters, the sounds that they represent and actual meaning of the word.

Consolidated Alphabetic Stage

Child begins to conceptualize that they can use components of words that they know to decode new words.

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