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Special Education Vocabulary G-U
This vocabulary has been taken from the online course "Foundations of Special Education" (Curriculum Project SPED). November 2009 (Part II).
Terms in this set (72)
Extent to which a previously learned knowledge or skill either occurs under conditions different from those under which it was originally learned or is performed in a different but functionally equivalent manner. Situation or setting generalization occurs when a student performs a behavior in the presence of relevant stimuli other than those that were present originally. Response generalization occurs when a person performs relevant behaviors that were never directly trained but have the same effect on the environment as the original trained behavior.
Generalized Tonic-Clonic Seizure
The most severe type o seizure, in which the individual has violent convulsions, loses consciousness, and becomes rigid. Formerly called grand mal seizure.
A discussion between a specially trained medical counselor and persons who are considering having a baby about the chances of having a baby with a disability, based on the prospective parents' genetic backgrounds.
Visual-spatial arrangements of information containing words or concepts connected graphically. These can help students see meaningful hierarchical, comparative and sequential relationships.
A type of behavior management and motivation procedure in which consequences are applied to the entire group or class of students and are contingent upon the behavior of selected students or the entire group.
Teacher-prepared handouts that provide back-ground information and standard cues with specific spaces where students can write key facts, concepts, and/or relationships during a lecture.
Refers to problems encountered when interacting with the environment.
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)
The virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)
An enlarged head caused by cerebral spinal fluid accumulating in the cranial cavity; often causes brain damage and severe retardation. A condition present at birth or developing soon afterward. Can sometimes be treated successfully with a shunt.
Muscle tone that is too tight; tense, contracted muscles.
Muscle tone that is too low; weak, floppy muscles.
Refers to the loss or reduced function of a body part or organ.
Individual Education Plan (IEP)
An agreement between a student with special learning needs and his or her classroom teachers, special education staff, and parents that outlines educational goals, procedures, and expected outcomes.
The educating of students with disabilities in regular classrooms; the LRE principle requires that students with disabilities be educated in settings as close to the regular class as possible in which an appropriate program can be provided and the child can make satisfactory educational progress.
Individualized Education Program (IEP)
Written document required by the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act for every child with a disability; includes statements of present performance, annual goals, short-term instructional objectives, specific educational services needed, relevant dates, regular education program participation, and evaluation procedures; must be signed by parents as well as educational personnel.
Individualized Family Services Plan (IFSP)
A requirement of P.L. 99-457, Education of the handicapped Act Amendments fo 1986, for the coordination of early intervention services for infants and toddlers with disabilities from birth to age 3. Similar to IEP, this is required for all school-age children with disabilities.
Individualized Health Care Plan (IHCP)
IEP component for students with special health care needs; specifies health care procedures and services administered by school personnel and a plan for emergencies.
Children with too little social interaction with others.
Latency (of Behavior)
The time that elapses between the opportunity to respond and the beginning of the behavior.
One or more of the basic psychological processes involved in understanding or in using language, spoken or written, which disorder may manifest itself in an imperfect ability to listen, think, speak, read, write, spell, or to do mathematical calculations.
Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
The educational setting that most closely resembles a regular school program and also meets the child's special educational needs. For many students with disabilities, the regular classroom is the LRE; however, the LRE is a relative concept and must be determined for each individual student with disabilities.
Magnitude (of Behavior)
The force with which a response is emitted.
A review of the relationship between a student's misconduct and his disability conducted by the IEP team and other qualified personnel.
Extent to which a learner continues to exhibit a previously learned behavior after a portion or all of the instructional intervention originally used to teach the skill has been terminated.
A review of the relationship between a student's misconduct and his disability conducted by the IEP team and other qualified personnel. Required by the IDEA amendments of 1997 when school officials seek to discipline a student with disabilities in a manner that would result in a change of placement, suspension, or expulsion in excess of 10 days.
Refers to a variety of instructional procedures that entail providing the learner with response prompts, cues, and other contrived supports and then gradually withdrawing those supports so student can respond independently to naturally occurring stimuli.
Type of spina bifida in which the covering of the spinal cord protrudes through an opening in the vertebrae but the cord itself and the nerve roots are enclosed.
A disability characterized by significant limitations in both intellectual functioning and conceptual, social and practical adaptive skills. This disability originates before age 18.
Memory-enhancing strategies such as acronyms, acrostics, keywords, and peg words.
A group of diseases that gradually weakens muscle tissue; usually becomes evident by the age of 4 or 5.
A protrusion on the back of a child with spina bifida, consisting of a sac of nerve tissue bulging through a cleft in the spine.
Multifactored Evaluation (MFP)
Assessment and evaluation of a child with a variety of test instruments and observation procedures. Required by IDEA when assessment is for educational placement of a child who is to receive special education services. Prevents the misdiagnosis and misplacement of a student as the result of considering only one test score.
Concomitant impairments (such as mental retardation-blindness, mental retardation-orthopedic impairments, etc.) the combination of which causes such severe educational problems that they cannot be accommodated in special education programs.
A multi-step process for screening children who may have disabilities. The initial step casts the broadest net; children identified in the first step are assessed more closely in a second step; children who have passed through the first two 'gates' are screened further.
Involves the central nervous system, affecting the ability to move, use, feel, or control certain parts of the body.
As a philosophy and principle, the belief that individuals with disabilities should, to the maximum extent possible, be physically and socially integrated into the mainstream of society regardless of the degree or type of disability.
Occupational Therapist (OT)
A professional who programs and/or delivers instructional activities and materials to help children and adults with disabilities learn to participate in useful activities.
Impairment of the skeletal system—bones, joints, limbs, and associated muscles.
Open Head Injury
Result of penetration of the skull, such as caused by a bullet or a forceful blow to the head with a hard or sharp object.
Paralysis of the lower part of the body, including both legs; usually results from injury to or disease of the spinal cord.
Teaching approach that acknowledges that even though an individual with severe disabilities may not be able to independently perform all the steps of a given task or activity, she can often be taught to do selected components or an adapted version of the task.
Occurring at or immediately after birth
Pervasive Developmental Disorders-Not Otherwise Specified (PDD-NOS)
Children who meet some but not all of the criteria for autistic disorder are often diagnosed as having PDD-NOS; included in the autism spectrum disorders.
An inherited metabolic disease that can cause severe retardation; can now be detected at birth and the detrimental effects prevented with a special diet.
A professional trained to help people with disabilities develop and maintain muscular and orthopedic capability and make correct and useful movement.
Presentation of a stimulus or event immediately after a behavior has been emitted, which has the effect of increasing the occurrence of that behavior in the future.
Occurring after birth.
Practice Stage of Learning
After the student has learned how to perform a new skill, he/she should work to develop fluency with the target skill. Feedback during the practice stage of learning should emphasize the rate or speed with which the student correctly performs the skill.
An instructional approach that involves (1) pinpointing the skills to be learned; (2) measuring the initial frequency or rate per minute with which the student can perform those behaviors; (3) setting an aim, or goal, for the child's improvement; (4) using direct, daily measurement to monitor progress made under an instructional program; (5) charting the results of those measurements on a standard celeration chart; and (6) changing the program if progress is not adequate.
Occurring before birth.
Intervention designed to eliminate or counteract risk factors so that a disability is never acquired; aimed at all relevant persons.
Exhibiting developmental disabilities in all five of the following behavioral-content areas: cognition, communication, social skills development, motor-mobility, and activities of daily living; and requires a service structure with continuous monitoring and observation.
Psychological tests that require a person to respond to a standardized task or set o stimuli. Responses are thought to be a projection of the test taker's personality and are scored according to the given test's scoring manual to produce a personality profile.
Paralysis of all four limbs.
A social service program designed to teach a newly disabled person basic skills needed for independence.
An educational program designed to teach a person to overcome a disability through training and education
Developmental, corrective, and other supportive services required for a child with disabilities to benefit from special education.
Response to Instruction (RTI)
An approach for identifying learning disabilities. The at-risk child receives intensive supplemental tutoring using a research-validated program for fixed-duration trial; failure to respond to the intensive instruction confirms the presence of a learning disability.
Neurodevelopmental disorder of childhood characterized by normal early development followed by loss of purposeful use of the hands, distinctive hand movements, slowed brain and head growth, gait abnormalities, seizures, and mental retardation; affects females almost exclusively; included in autism spectrum disorders.
Intervention directed at reducing or eliminating the effects of existing risk factors; aimed at individuals exposed to or displaying specific risk factors.
A combination of skills, knowledge, and beliefs that enable a person to engage in goal-directed, self-regulated, autonomous behavior; includes skills such as choice/self-management, self-advocacy, and self-awareness.
Comparing the results of a self-assessment of one's performance with a standard or goal, which may or may not be self-determined.
A behavior change procedure in which an individual observes and records the frequency and/or quality of his own behavior.
Term used to refer to challenges faced by individuals with severe and profound mental retardation, autism, and/or physical/sensory impairments combined with marked developmental delay. Persons with sever disabilities exhibit extreme deficits in intellectual functioning and need systematic instruction for basic skills such as self-care and communicating with others.
Tube that diverts fluid from one part of the body to another; often implanted in people with hydrocephalus to remove extra cerebrospinal fluid from the head and send it directly into the heart or intestines.
Simple Partial Seizure
A type of seizure characterized by sudden jerking motions with no loss of consciousness. Partial seizures may occur weekly, monthly or only once or twice a year.
A congenital malformation of the spine in which the vertebrae that normally protect the spine do not develop fully; may involve loss of sensation and severe muscle weakness in the lower part of the body.
Breaking a complex skill or chain of behaviors into smaller, teachable units
Intervention designed to minimize the impact of a specific condition or disability; aimed at individuals with a disability.
Topography (of Behavior)
The physical shape or form of a response.
Traumatic Brain Injury
An acquired injury to the brain caused by an external physical force, resulting in total or partial functional disability, psychosocial impairments, or both that adversely affects a child's educational performance.
A set of safety guidelines that interrupt the chain of infection spread by potential biohazards such as blood and bodily fluids.
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