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43 terms

CH14

Principled leadership
STUDY
PLAY
personality
is the unique and relatively stable pattern of behaviors, thoughts, and emotions shown by individuals
ectraversion
is a perosnality trait associated with being sociable, talkative, assertive, and adventurous
agreeablesness
is a personality trait associated with being good natured, cooperative, trustful, and not jealous
conscientiousness
is a personality trait associated with being achievement orientied, reponsible, persvering, and dependable
openness to experience
is a personality trait associated with being intellectual, original, imaginative, and cultured.
emotional
is a personality trait associated with being calm, placid, posised, and not neurotic
Myers-Briggs type indicator (MBTI)
is a personality inventory based on Carl Jung's work on psychological types
Theory X
states that managers assume people are inherently lazy, dislike work, will avoid working hard unless forced to do so, and prefer to be directed rather than accepting responsibility
theory Y
states that managers assume people are inherently motivated to work and will feel unfulfilled if they do not have the opportunity to work and make a contribution to society
Maslow's hierarchy of needs
is the theory that people are motivatied to satisfy five need levels: physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization
ERG theory
describes three universal categories of needs: existence, relatedness, and growth
Frustration-regression principle
suggests that people who are unable to satisfy higher-order needs at a basic level will compensate by focusing on oversatisfying lower-order needs
Hygiene factors
refer to the presence or absence of sources of job dissatisfaction
Motivator factors
refer to the presence or absence of sources of jov satisfaction
Job characteristics model
specifies how to increase the motivational potential of a job by improving the meaningfulnesss, autonomy, and feedback associated with the job
McClelland's acquired needs theory
states that certain types of needs or desires are acquired during an individual's lifetime
process theories of motivation
describe how people can be motivated
self-efficacy
refers to a person's belief that he or she will be able to complete a task successfully
self-fulfilling prophecy effect
is the idea that subordinates often live up (or down) ro the expectations of their managers
expectancy theory
states that motivation depends on an individual's learned expectations about his or her ability to perform certain tasks and receive desired rewards
expectancy
refers to the probability perceived by an individual that exerting a given amout of effort will lead to a certain level of performace
instrumentality
refers to the perceived probability that successfully performing at a certain level will result in attaining a specific outcome
valence
is the value an individual attaches to an outcome
intrinsic motivation
is a cource of motivation that comes from doing the activity or work itself
extrinsic motivation
is a source of motivation that comes from factors outside the task itself
reinforcement
is a response or consequence liked to a behavior
operant conditioning
is the use of reinforcement principles to systematically reinforce desirable work behavior and discourage undesirable work behavior; also called behavior modification
positive reinforcement
is the administration of a pleasant and rewaarding consequence following a desired behavior
punishment
decreases the frequency of or eliminates an undesirable behavior by making an unpleasant consequence contingent on that behavior's occurrence.
negative reinforcement
is the removal of an unpleasant consequence following a desired behavior; also called avoidance learning
extinction
is the absence of any reinforcement-- either positive or negative--- following teh occurrence of a behavior
wquity theory
is based on the logic of social comparisons and assumes that people are motivated to seek and preserve social equity in teh rewards they expect for performace
organizational commitment
is a motivational force that binds a person to a particular organization
legitimate power
is th capacity that someone has, owing to his or her position in an organization's hierarchy, to influence other people
reward power
is the ability to give or withhold positive benefits or rewards
coercive power
is the power that rests on a person's ability to motivate others' behavior through threat of punishment
expert power
is based on the special knowledge, skills, and expertise that someone possesses.
referent power
is the ability to motivate through identification with or association with others
group efficacy
is the collective belief about the group's performance capability
organizational citizenship behavior (OCB)
is a behavior that goes above and beyond normal role expectations to help others or benefit the organization
Balanced Scorecard
is a management tool used to balance the use of financial goals with the use of other valuable goals that are important to overall organizational well-being
Distributive justice
is concerned with comparing one's inputs and outcomes to others' inputs and outcomes
procedural justice
is concerned with the extent to which policies and rules are participatively developed, transparent, and fairly administered.