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BIOL 101 Chp 9: Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

This flashcard set includes the vocabulary words and definitions from Chp 9: Cell Respiration (Biology 9E by Campbell et al, 2011). Visit my website for more biology and anatomy resources! http://robswatski.virb.com
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fermentation
a catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid
aerobic respiration
a catabolic pathway that consumes oxygen gas and organic molecules, producing ATP
cellular respiration
the catabolic pathways of aerobic and anaerobic respiration, which break down organic molecules for the production of ATP
redox reaction
a chemical reaction involving the complete or partial transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another
oxidation
the loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction
reduction
the addition of electrons to a substance involved in a redox reaction
reducing agent
the electron donor in a redox reaction
oxidizing agent
the electron acceptor in a redox reaction
NAD+
a coenzyme that can accept an electron and acts as an electron carrier in the electron transport chain
electron transport chain
a sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttle electrons during the redox reactions that release energy used to make ATP
glycolysis
the splitting of glucose into pyruvate; serves as the starting point for fermentation or cellular respiration
citric acid cycle
an eight-step series of reactions that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules by oxidizing pyruvate to carbon dioxide
oxidative phosphorylation
the production of ATP using energy derived from the redox reactions of an electron transport chain
substrate-level phosphorylation
the formation of ATP by an enzyme directly transferring a phosphate group to ADP from an intermediate substrate in catabolism
acetyl CoA
the entry compound for the citric acid cycle in cellular respiration, formed from a fragment of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme
cytochrome
an iron-containing protein that is a component of of electron transport chains in the mitochondria and chlorplasts of eukaryotic cells
ATP synthase
a complex of several membrane proteins that provide a port through which protons diffuse; uses the energy of a hydrogen ion (proton) concentration gradient to make ATP
chemiosmosis
an energy-coupling mechanism that uses energy stored in the form of a hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work, such as the synthesis of ATP
proton-motive force
the potential energy stored in the form of an electrochemical gradient, generated by the pumping of hydrogen ions across biological membranes during chemiosmosis
alcohol fermentation
glycolysis followed by the conversion of pyruvate to carbon dioxide and ethyl alcohol
lactic acid fermentation
glycolysis followed by the conversion of pyruvate to lactate, with no release of carbon dioxide
obligate anaerobes
an organism that only carries out fermentation or anaerobic respiration; cannot use oxygen and in fact may be poisoned by it
facultative anaerobes
an organism that makes ATP by aerobic respiration if oxygen is present but that switches to anaerobic respiration or fermentation if oxygen is not present
beta oxidation
a metabolic sequence that fatty acids down to two-carbon fragments that enter the citric acid cycle as acetyl CoA